3 Ducks Trading System PDF. This indicator uses three different ducks i.e. steps to trade a healthy and profitable trade. In the first duck. PDF | Conservation partners are concerned that oil and gas development in the Prairie Pothole Region may reduce the abundance of breeding. 3 Ducks Trading onlineadvertisement.xyz - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. EURO CURRENCY TRENDS FORECAST Domain is an audio-on-demand e-mail providers log in input, screen. OpManager allows the 'Firewall. Choosing this don't have Frequency fields the number make sure.
But if you are a longer term trader this may not be a big deal for you. Targets: Same again, depends what type of a trader you are but target can be support or resistance levels. I like this system a lot as it does not try to out-guess the markets movements and pick tops and bottoms. The system will quickly tell you to be a buyer or a seller. Its a good honest system that tries to follow prices. The best time I found for trading this system is the European and US sessions. Take care to watch what is going on around you - economic new releases, holidays etc.
Yes, You can also get the same by using a 60 sma, a sma and a sma all on the 5min chart. Forex Indicators Collection. I have been using this "system" for the past few year. I like to call it a guide rather than a system and use it with my own market knowledge and view it as a common sense approach to price observation. My advice to you would be to demo trade it in the live market across most currency pairs.
Make it your own ie stop-loss, enteries, exits, adding to winners etc and see how it works for you. Captain Currency, may I just say thank you thank you thank you thank you thank you thank you for posting this indicator. Being able to see the relationship between different time frames has never been so much easier.
New comment. The 3 Duck's Trading System Firstly I would like to say, I did not create or invent this system, I have just added one or two ideas to make it my own and named it "The 3 duck's Trading System" for obvious reasons as you will find out later on. How it works: Step 1 - First Duck The first thing we need to do is look at our largest time-frame 4hr chart and see if current prices are above or below the 60 sma.
Step 2 - Second Duck The second thing we need to do is drop down to our 1hr chart. Step 3 - Third Duck From step 1 and 2, current prices need to be below their 60 sma's on each chart. Good Luck with the 3 Duck's Trading System. Captain Currency. PS: You can view the chart examples for the above on my homepage.
I dont know if this against the rules Shoot the 3 Ducks Trading method Time frame. Files: ducks. Pericardial effusion and cardiac dilatation predominantly left-sided were regularly observed. Megaloschizonts were present in various tissues such as liver, spleen, kidney, lung, myocardium, muscularis externa of the gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle and brain. Gametocytes were identified as intraerythrocytic or intraleukocytic foreign structures.
Haemosiderosis and erythrophagocytosis were observed in spleen and liver in some cases. Amidostomiasis Amidostomum anseris was diagnosed as contributing to mortality in two submissions involving a total of five goslings. There was increased mortality in both flocks. The four birds in one of the submissions were heavily coinfected with renal coccidia Eimeria truncata.
Small intestinal coccidiosis species not identified was diagnosed in one submission in a domestic duckling from a flock experiencing high mortality in 5—6-weeks-old ducklings. Incidental parasite findings included A. Information on parasite status was missing in eight submissions There were seven submissions 8. The affected gastrointestinal segment varied between birds, from crop to colon, and there was dilatation of proximal segments.
Two were adult birds, and the remaining were subadults. Rickets was diagnosed in three submissions and five birds involving two ducklings and three goslings with reported flock mortality. There was no information on type of feed provided. Hepatic lipidosis was diagnosed in three submissions involving one domestic duck, one Muscovy duck and one domestic goose.
The immediate cause of death in the Muscovy duck was liver rupture and internal haemorrhage. The goose was obese and presented with multifocal liver haemorrhages and end-stage kidney disease see below. Emaciation of unknown cause was diagnosed in one goose with concurrent amidostomiasis and in one Muscovy duck. Generalised noninfectious disease processes were diagnosed as the cause of mortality in 23 submissions Incidental findings included non-specific hepatitis and enteritis in a subset of the birds.
Renal and visceral urate deposits were observed in several additional birds but considered as secondary to other disease processes and not included in this section. End-stage kidney disease renal sclerosis was diagnosed in an 8-year-old obese goose with concurrent hepatic lipidosis see previous section.
Idiopathic cardiac dilatation and congestive heart failure was diagnosed in one two-months-old domestic duck, two Muscovy ducklings and one adult domestic goose. Depression and respiratory distress were noticed by owners prior to death or euthanasia. There was one case of primary reproductive noninfectious disease in an adult female obese goose with regressed ovary. Degenerated egg materials yolk, albumen, membranes and shell remnants were present in the coelomic cavity with fibrous adhesions between the egg mass and organs, loops of small intestine and mesentery internal layer and chronic coelomitis.
Cloacal prolapse of unknown aetiology in combination with skin necrosis in the vent region and severe secondary colonic and cloacal dilatation were diagnosed in an adult female domestic duck. Severe amyloidosis was diagnosed in two Muscovy ducks with zygomycosis see above. Various idiopathic inflammatory conditions that could not be assigned a definitive aetiology due to lack of ancillary diagnostics or no identified cause were assigned to the generalised noninfectious category akin to a previous paper [ 6 ].
In Muscovy ducks there were two birds with oesophagitis, one with non-heterophilic perivascular encephalitis and one with haemorrhagic enteritis. Neoplasia was identified in two submissions 2. Blood was present in the body cavity from the ruptured tumour. A definitive microscopic diagnosis was not achieved, but gross appearance and cell morphology were suggestive of a sex chord stromal tumour i. The other case was a locally invasive scirrhous adenocarcinoma, which accounted for the death of a 3-year-old domestic duck which died from secondary small intestinal obstruction.
A similar but smaller tumour was observed in caecum. Ventricular septum defect VSD with signs of congestive heart failure was diagnosed in a 7-weeks-old gosling. Another diagnosis in this category was unilateral renal agenesis with compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral kidney in a two-year-old goose Fig. Leg-deformity was observed in one subadult duck with shortened tarsometatarsal bones and malformation of tarsal joints, and bilateral varus deformity was observed in a subadult domestic duck.
Unilateral renal agenesis left kidney with contralateral renal hypertrophy and visceral gout urates visible on airsacs in a domestic goose. Two adult domestic ducks were submitted from a flock with increased mortality three out of seven birds had died within a week before submission , egg drop, diarrhoea, listlessness, and ataxia. No gross pathological findings were recorded at necropsy. The other bird was examined in a later disease stage, and iron deposits in liver were present but less pronounced.
A few days prior to the first symptoms, the birds had gained access to a vegetable plot and consumed large amounts of garlic and based on a previous case in white Chinese geese that were fed green onions [ 20 ], garlic-induced haemolytic anaemia was suspected. Marked hepatic haemosiderosis in a suspected case of garlic poisoning of a domestic duck. Trauma was diagnosed in two submissions 2. One adult domestic duck died from predation. Based on lesion characteristics, a mustelid mammal was the most likely predator.
The bird may have been weakened from concurrent chronic hepatis and amyloidosis, which were also observed at post-mortem examination, but these were not severe enough to be considered as contributing to mortality and there was no clinical history suggesting underlying disease. The other bird was a Muscovy duck with a large haematoma on the head and along the neck. In four submissions 5. These included three domestic ducks and two Muscovy ducks.
This study is one of very few published post-mortem case series from non-commercial poultry and only a subset of these earlier studies have included anseriform birds [ 6 , 21 , 22 ]. None of the previously published studies have focused solely on ducks and geese. Moreover, it is the first report of its kind from Scandinavia except a paper from Finland involving backyard chickens [ 5 ]. The number and geographic distribution of domestic anseriform birds is not known in Sweden.
For this reason, conclusions regarding disease occurrence and regional representation of the population must be drawn with some care. Non-commercial poultry ownership is thought to have grown considerably in North America and Europe in recent years [ 2 , 4 , 5 ] and despite lack of population figures, this is most likely also true for Sweden. It is unknown whether this increase also involves anseriform birds, but it seems reasonable since they are often found in small numbers in mixed-species poultry flocks [ 23 ].
Resources therefore need to be allocated to ensure animal health and welfare not only on commercial farms but also in hobby poultry. Another motive is that small flocks may act as reservoirs of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms and transmission to commercial flocks is a possibility. Analysing necropsy results is one way to gain insight into disease occurrence in small poultry flocks.
This paper presents diseases and other problems on small farms with domestic anseriform poultry and provides information that may help to improve flock health care. It is, however, important to remember that birds submitted for laboratory post-mortem examination often represent mortality events rather than day-to-day mortality. A major constraint of studies relying on privately owned birds is that authorization to perform necessary diagnostic tests may not be granted by owners for financial reasons.
In this study this was often the case, despite that financial support was available for co-funding post-mortem examinations and some ancillary diagnostic tests in case of mortality at flock level. This problem, together with absence of routine surveillance activities in non-commercial poultry e. In general terms, husbandry methods in non-commercial poultry including ducks and geese differ considerably from those applied by the poultry industry [ 23 ].
Factors that may contribute to a different disease profile among small non-commercial flocks include for example unregulated trading of eggs and birds, mixing of birds of different species, ages and origins, presence of subclinical carriers and missing or inadequate biosecurity routines. It is also likely that ducks and geese in small non-commercial flocks have access to the outdoor environment with ponds or natural waters such as streams, lakes or coastal habitats, and thus, contact with wild free-living waterfowl may be exceedingly difficult to avoid.
The overall disease profiles seemed to differ between domestic ducks, Muscovy ducks and geese in this study Fig. For example, bacterial diseases were diagnosed more often in domestic ducks than in Muscovy ducks and domestic geese, whereas parasitic diseases were more common in Muscovy duck including hybrids and geese compared to ducks.
Also, fungal diseases were most common in Muscovy ducks. These differences may be partly explained by the low numbers of birds investigated in this study, but there may also be true differences in susceptibility to infectious agents and other diseases.
One such example is systemic yeast infection, which mainly occurs in Muscovy ducks. Management-related factors may also influence disease occurrence. Domestic ducks and Muscovy ducks often have access to water sources such as ponds and streams from an early age where there is a risk for transmission of pathogens from the wild avifauna and arthropod vectors, while geese are more often raised on pasture without access to natural waters.
Moreover, it is easier and less expensive to transport small ducks compared to adult heavy geese to the laboratory, which also may influence disease profiles. Several diagnoses in this paper represent the first reported occurrence in anseriform poultry from Sweden. This may reflect the small anseriform population, the low numbers of anseriform poultry submitted for post-mortem diagnostics and lack of previous reports rather than recent disease introductions.
The DVE cases in Muscovy ducks in our study were epidemiologically unrelated and birds displayed typical gross and microscopic findings except for absence of lesions in the oral cavity and oesophagus. No spread to other flocks was documented. The source of the virus most likely was wild free-living asymptomatic carrier waterfowl either by direct contact or through contaminated water in cohabited ponds.
Although DVE has never been diagnosed in wild waterfowl in Sweden, the causative virus DEV has been detected at high rates in wild free-living waterfowl in Europe [ 25 ]. One of these outbreaks occurred in a small non-commercial mixed flock and involved chickens and Muscovy ducks. Few cases have been previously reported from domestic ducks [ 27 , 28 ], but together with our case they suggest that domestic ducks may be highly susceptible to this particular virus clade.
Leucocytozoonosis is caused by a haemosporidian parasite presumably L. The sporozoite stage is transmitted by haematophageous arthropod vectors of genus Simuliidae blackflies and they develop into gametocytes in erythrocytes and leucocytes and megaloschizonts in reticuloendothelial cells in a variety of organs and tissues, most often observed histologically in liver, spleen and myocardium.
We observed that leucocytozoonosis was diagnosed in duckling and goslings in summer June—August , which probably reflects seasonal parasite reactivation in adult wild or domestic carrier birds in combination with vector exposure and availability of susceptible young birds.
A seasonal relapse phenomenon i. Gross findings in the affected young ducks and geese of this study reflected the effects of severe haemolytic anaemia, and mortality is often very high and may reoccur in the same flock in different breeding seasons unless young birds are protected from the vector. Until recently, disseminated yeast infection, also known as Muscovy duck disease, was of unclear aetiology.
Following a case report from Canada involving a great blue heron Ardea herodias and molecular identification of an intracellular yeast belonging to the Saccharomycetales family [ 18 ], a closely related yeast was reported from Muscovy ducks in Canada [ 19 ]. Presumed earlier cases have also been reported in Muscovy ducks and domestic ducks [e. Further, a retrospective analysis of anseriform necropsies performed at SVA in — unpublished identified two additional outbreaks, both diagnosed in in Muscovy ducks, which had been incorrectly diagnosed as leukocytozoonosis.
These early cases occurred in northern Sweden, including one outbreak in the farthermost northern county. Interestingly, gross findings of coelomic fluid accumulation and hepatosplenomegaly in disseminated yeast infection are reminiscent of leucocytozoonosis. Discriminating findings include severe lung pathology in disseminated yeast infection and anaemia in leucocytozoonosis and the respective organism may be provisionally identified microscopically. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of disseminated yeast infection in anseriform birds remain poorly understood.
However, the predominant pathology, especially the profuse intraendothelial yeast invasion and severe pulmonary oedema in the absence of necrosis and marked inflammation, suggests that the infection leads to occlusion of parabronchial wall capillaries and severely impaired gas exchange and secondary cardiac dilatation with pulmonary and coelomic fluid accumulation.
Another rarely reported fungal infection in anseriform birds, i. The affected Muscovy ducks presented with lesions comparable to descriptions in an earlier report from ducks [ 32 ], but with the additional finding of systemic amyloidosis.
Gastrointestinal impaction is a well-known problem in non-commercial poultry including anseriform birds [ 6 , 33 , 34 ]. This study lends further support to the need of protecting ducks and geese from access to foreign objects, long dry grass and expandable feed, to provide drinking water at all times and to avoid stress, which may induce birds to ingest excessive volumes of inappropriate materials.
Another management-related disease is rickets, which was diagnosed in both ducks and geese in this study. The dietary needs of non-commercial poultry at different life stages, not least among fast-growing young anseriform birds, are not always appreciated by owners. Deposition of urates in kidney parenchyma, ureters, on serosal surfaces and in joints i.
It may have a multitude of aetiologies such as dehydration, postrenal obstruction, excess dietary proteins or calcium, water deprivation and infections [ 6 , 35 ], but at necropsy it is rarely possible to determine the cause in individual birds. In this study, gout was diagnosed in domestic ducks, Muscovy ducks and domestic geese and in different age categories, which supports earlier findings that it is a common cause of mortality in poultry, independent of species [ 6 ].
In agreement with earlier reports describing causes of mortality in non-commercial poultry, congenital and developmental anomalies were diagnosed at low frequency in this case series [ 6 , 22 ]. Unilateral kidney agenesis is a rare, although well-known, incidental congenital anomaly in poultry, which is occasionally diagnosed in birds with compensatory contralateral renal hypertrophy and visceral urate deposits [ 6 ].
It is, however, not clear whether unilateral renal agenesis leads to nephron overload and renal failure in birds. A distinct seasonal submission pattern was observed in this study, with This may be associated with our findings of infectious diseases in young anseriform birds, such as leucocytozoonosis and fungal infection that may cause flock mortality events in young birds and perhaps higher interest among owners to achieve diagnoses in young birds.
A wide range of different causes of mortality was observed in this study, some of which likely were a result of transmission from wild free-living waterfowl or by arthropods, while others were associated with animal husbandry or idiopathic causes. Anseriform poultry are considered as minor poultry species and research on animal health and disease prevention is limited compared to gallinaceous species. This is particularly true for non-commercial birds.
The information obtained in this study can be used to identify potentially important disease conditions and help owners and veterinarians prevent disease and provide adequate veterinary care for con-commercial anseriform poultry. The dataset used during the current study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Welfare of ducks in European duck husbandry systems. Worlds Poult Sci J. Article Google Scholar. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues. Br Poult Sci. Raising chickens in city backyards: the public health role.
J Community Health. Backyard chickens in the United States: a survey of flock owners. Poult Sci. Questionnaire study and postmortem findings in backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Acta Vet Scand. Causes of mortality in backyard poultry in eight states in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella -Part 1: Detection of Salmonella spp.
ISO Accessed 20 Jan Diagnostic manual for avian influenza. Accessed 31 Mar J Clin Microbiol. Development of an L gene real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for the detection of avian paramyxovirus type 1 RNA in clinical samples. Arch Virol. Sci Rep. Detection of duck enteritis virus by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis. Development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for duck enteritis virus DNA. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.
Avian Pathol. J Parasitol. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press; Google Scholar. Intracellular yeasts in endothelial cells of a great blue heron Ardea herodias. Disseminated yeast Order Saccharomycetales infection in a Muscovy duckling Cairina moschata. Can Vet J. Crespo R, Chin RP. Effect of feeding green onions Allium ascalonicum to White Chinese geese Threskiornis spinicollis.
A 5-year retrospective review of avian diseases diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia. J Comp Pathol. A two-year prospective study of small poultry flocks in Ontario, Canada, part 2: causes of morbidity and mortality.
Correia-Gomes C, Sparks N. Exploring the attitudes of backyard poultry keepers to health and biosecurity. Prev Vet Med. Duck virus enteritis duck plague —a comprehensive update. Vet Q. First survey of the occurrence of duck enteritis virus DEV in free-ranging Polish water birds. Comparison of —17 and previous epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 Guangdong lineage in Europe.
Emerg Infect Dis. Efficacy of clade 2. A model for the ecology of avian malaria. J Wildl Dis. Mortality in Muscovy ducks Cairina moschata caused by Haemoproteus infection. An unusual intracellular infection in ducks. Zygomycosis in the duck. Morishita TY. Common diseases in backyard ducks and geese.
Semin Avian Exot Pet Med. Gastrointestinal impaction in backyard poultry. Lierz M. Avian renal disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy. Vet Clin Exot Anim. Download references. Systemic yeast infection in Muscovy ducks Cairina moschata on four non-commercial Swedish farms. Poster WVPA —
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