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The choice of this identification technique most probably originates from the main theme of the movie, which is the genetic determination of human 4. DNA analysis and identification was invented in and became Beyond adopted technologies, there are movies, which have a tool in crime fighting. A database is already maintained their own unique visions of human-computer interaction. But it is not necessary to take blood of view. The movie clips of this chapter are categorized ac- of the object, any part of the body would suffice any might cording to their area of real-life applications and research: be more convenient, for instance hairs or saliva.
Invasive Neural Interfaces: Although the corresponding Alien IV14 uses a identification technique that is not being research field is more concerned with supporting disabled researched and probably never will, because it is very doubt- people than with HCI for a wide audience, we included this ful if sufficient physiological data can be extracted from its type of interaction, since it still represents interaction be- medium: The breath ID.
This idea seems to be an attempt of the director to find a new and unique element for his movie. The first example is taken from Johnny Mnemonic7 : The specialty of the agent is to deliver sensitive data using his An indepth view on biometrics in science fiction movies was brain as a storage device. Film scenes show the transfer of given during the 23rd Chaos Communication Congress1.
For unknown reasons the actor Displays have the advantage for moviemakers that they also wears a head-mounted display during this procedure. In are inherently visual, characters using them have to look at The Matrix11 , the same actor, Keanu Reeves, plays a role them, and hence the audience watching the movie will see in which his brain is interfaced to a computer One might them as well, whenever they are used. It is obviously much speculate about reusing the sockets..
As with all other easier to visualize new ideas for display technologies than humans in the envisioned future of that movie, a computer for a new generation of CPUs, for example. More augmented everyday objects are landline and mobile phones.
Stationary phones can rep- resent exit and entry points to the matrix on the virtual side and are used by picking up the phone receiver or putting it down. Mobile phones are used for communication between people within the matrix and those outside.
A method to display 3 dimensional data is used in X-Men15 , 5. The technology is not explained, but the surface seems to consist of small metallic cubes that are In some cases, visionary movies manage to show technology formed to the shape of the displayed objects by raising them and HCI, which is actually realized in the real world at a to the appropriate level see fig.
In some cases though, it seems very obvious where an in- Holographic displays are very popular among directors and spiration came from. Also, mensional image. In some the mimics of a computer animation. A green grid, which cases this worked relatively well, while there are other ex- strongly reminds of the calibration image of a CRT projec- anmples e.
Heisenberg compensator which can only be tor, is projected onto the hand, indicating a visual recogni- considered a scientific joke or plot device. The focus the grid pattern, it would not even make much sense to do so of Star Wars18 for instance was always more on the ethical in this context. But for the scene, it was necessary to show or spiritual side, concerned with the battle between good that the face is not the person itself, but just an animation and evil, and less concerend with technological concepts or that is controlled by someone else.
The british television series Space on the other hand was always attempting to be scientifically correct The concept of virtually overlaying everyday objects with in terms of how spaceships move etc. In puter generated world, has the interesting side effect that this series, you will notice 3 kinds of devices or displays of all actions in this world can be seen as manipulations of a different size: computer system.
So both in very similar to a PDA, equipped with many sensors the ubicomp world and in the matrix, people interact with and used for outdoor analysis. These device categories were probably inspired by familiar classes of mundane artifacts, such as small note pads or ad- dress books, A4 or letter size paper, and blackboards or posters.
One typical scene shows the usage of a tablet to- gether with a wall screen at sick bay. The doctor seems to transfer data from the tablet PC that she is holding to the wall screen using a light pen. The reality is probably that she is holding a piece of plastic together with a small flashlight. This choice also coincides with the device classes identified in early ubiquitous computing research, such as the ParcTab project at Xerox PARC , in which devices were also cat- egorized into 3 classes: the so-called tabs, pads and boards.
Tabs are very small and personal devices, which can be used for private tasks or provide context information about the user wearing them. Pads are envisioned as a conceptual mix- ture between a sheet of paper and a computer, lying around on tables and used spontaneously by any user. Boards are big screens on tables or at walls, which especially support collaborative work. The fact, that this project and the TV series started at the same time is quite interesting, and it is not clear if one has inspired the other or if the similarity is only a coincidence, since this classification of devices could be seen as relatively obvious and straightforward.
The display consists of 3 parts, and visually reminds of the classic example of a holographic display is the projection of DynaWall concept from the i-Land project at Fraunhofer princess Leia in the original Star Wars18 movie. With this technology, the movie scene are merely of a visual kind, but striking it is indeed possible to display spatial output which can be nevertheless.
Mobile and or by embedding sensors into both wrist-belts that provide multi-modal navigation systems have been the subject of 6 degrees of freedom. The whole scene looks very similar to several research projects over the past decade. Two of them locked themselves in a small shuttle dimensional image. Tragically, they were not aware of were used for computer output - except for this device. The concept of a virtual avatar which is capable of performing deictic references to objects in the real world was discussed and realized in .
By interpreting their lip movements it was able he could see various demonstrations about gesture recogni- to understand their conversation, with the consequence that tion projects or the kitchen of the future, getting an im- it started killing the crew one by one to prevent its own pression of the state of current research in this field. His shutdown. The idea of computers and machines being concious was also On his tour, Spielberg had the opportunity to talk to John picked up by John Carpenter in his low-budget production Underkoffler, a gesture interface expert who was eventually Dark Star21 and extended such that other parts of the ship hired as a consultant for this film, as well as Jaron Lanier, also had their own identity.
Here, interacting with them was who claims to have coined the term Virtual Reality. To- more like interacting with human colleagues. Unfortunately ideas about the future in The result of these efforts a malfunction caused it to be stuck in its bay, but it re- can be seen in various techniques appearing in the movie, fused to cancel the previous order to explode. One of the which remind of ongoing or past projects at MIT or other crew members tried to engage the bomb into a meta-physical institutes: dialogue to convince it not to follow these orders.
The idea of associating personalities London was used to represent offenders and victims to the to speech interfaces of everyday objects is currently being system. Their names are engraved into wooden marbles, explored [13, 14] with the objective of providing an intuitive which then can be placed onto trays to obtain information.
Placing the marbles on different trays will for ex- The last example in this section is an intelligent assistant ample play the message or dial the caller back. The main character travels into the The principle of a market-oriented future is primarily demon- 22nd century and encounters this avatar on his search for strated by the immersive and personalized advertisements, more information about time travelling. Personal guides which the main character encounters during the movie: In for museums or exhibitions are not new and exist as pro- one scene he steps out of the subway and different commer- totypes and also as commercial solutions.
They are mostly cials welcome him by his name and compete for his atten- PDA-based and sometimes support kiosks - stationary ma- tion. Another scene shows him entering information of higher quality. The PEACH project  is a clothes shop and again he is recognized by a virtual shop- one example for this work. Here it is also possible for the ping assistant who asks if he is pleased with what he bought avatar to migrate from the PDA to a kiosk or vice versa . His shopping behavior was stored and used to infer In Time Machine22 multiple transparent, human-sized dis- further recommendations see fig.
The avatar dis- certain websites2 which use the concept of collaborative fil- plays different kinds of 2D information on the screens and tering. These sites make suggestions to buyers entering their also interacts with the environment that is visible through website according to shopping behaviors of other customers the displays see fig.
Another example of a technology which is currently under development is electronic ink. In Minority Report23 it is shown once with a newspaper changing the displayed ani- mated and colored articles and again when a box of corn flakes plays a multimedia clip on the box itself.
The box is shaken several times, obviously in order to turn the ani- mation off. A comparable product at present is the e-ink 3 Figure Gesture Interface in Minority Report device, which was developed for e-book applications. This paper-like display is able to change its contents, but cur- rently not yet quite as flexible.
In real life, identification is sometimes done via customer ID cards, A very popular biometric identification technology — as men- which are processed when the client pays, but not yet when tioned before — is the retinal and iris scan. Either the blood they enter the shop. Besides the field of online shopping, vessel patterns of the retina or the pattern of the iris can there also is considerable research to bring personalized and be used to uniquely identify individuals.
Such systems are now gaining acceptance in many ar- face for browsing through the memories or visions of the eas, and in an imaginative future as described in Minority so-called Pre-Cogs see fig. It is not required anymore that people would in- fully designed gesture metaphors to manipulate data and teract with a device, just passing by would suffice. First its layout on the screen.
Besides the usual drag and drop steps towards a large scale city-wide observation and recog- functions, you can distinguish actions, such as cleaning the nition system aiming at Al- left hand representing the object such that you can zoom though the computer vision based recognition of individuals in by approaching it with the other hand.
Scotty tried to talk to the PC in the same ways he effects. This scene nicely illustrates a clash in conceptual as Star Trek17 and Star Wars18 set the bar very high and models between the GUIs of current personal computers and have created an expectation for the average consumer which the perfect speech interface of the space ship. Researchers in turn respond to this by designing their parody of Star Trek17 in which a group of actors of a interfaces in such a way, that they allude to popular movies: science-fiction series is abducted by an alien race, which had STTNG8 , for example, uses a perfect speech interface to the been watching the series from their planet, and now mistakes main computer, and the Intelligent Room project at MIT them for the real heroes.
Already signaling to the user, that the system is in a state to receive their attempt to leave the space harbor miserably failed, spoken commands. The futuristic HCI counteracts this issue by deliberately incorpo- entire movie is a very interesting twist on the interaction rating technical flaws into their interfaces - another benefit between science fiction films and reality.
The third ironic scene is a short part of an episode of the 9. This accurately describes the current state of many search engines — be they web ser- vices or desktop applications — which often provide assis- Blankertz, G. Dornhege, M. Krauledat, K. Kunzmann, F. Losch, and G. The telligent UIs. The intelligent room project. In Second As stated in the introduction, we discovered a certain pat- International Conference on Cognitive Technology, tern in the collaboration between filmmakers and scientists After an initial phase of just unreflected citation of existing technology or simple ex-  J.
Daugman and C. Epigenetic randomness, trapolation without conceptual changes, technology started complexity and singularity of human iris patterns. In to inspire filmmakers, they invented interesting variations or Proceedings of the Royal Society, B , Biological pointed out the consequences of failures or total success for Sciences, page —, Herrera and M.
Dna fingerprinting. Journal of Criminal Justice, page —, When researchers pick up ideas and concepts from Science  B. Johanson, A. Fox, and T. The Fiction movies, they often face major technological prob- interactive workspaces project: Experiences with lems. It is very simple to mock up a new technology for ubiquitous computing rooms.
Eventually, however, it can be Ubiquitous Computing Environments, April-June, observed, that researchers and filmmakers collaborate in or- Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and conceptually inspiring versions of the constructed future. ACM press, Depending on the budget or  M.
Kruppa and A. In Proceedings of SimVis , page 1. George Lucas  M. Performing physical 2. Le voyage dans la lune , France , directed by object references with migrating virtual characters. Maybury, O. Stock, and W. Wahlster, editors, Proceedings of the first conference on INtelligent 3.
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