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The southern bank of the Neva, Palace Embankment, is lined with glorious, stately palaces. Gostinyy Dvor, to the east, has always been the commercial hub of the city with shops, bars and restaurants lining Nevskiy prospekt. Petrogradskaya, Pet etrog ogra gra to the north, is dominated d dom omi minate ated b byy th the Pete Peter and Paul Fortress. Its gilded spire dominates the skyline of Petrogradskaya, an area otherwise characterized by many splendid Style StyleModerne building ldings dings.

The surrounding area, with quiet streets lining its canals, is perfect for walks during the atmospheric White Nights. In the 20th century it underwent three name changes, three revolutions and a day siege. For a city less than years old, it has an amazing history. His sucR cessor founded Kiev, which aR Russian nation was born. Ivan consequences; Orthodoxy was to become a cornerthe Terrible —84 was the first to be called stone of Russian identity. Paradoxically, Russia only emerged as a united entity Yet his reign, which began during the year domination of in glory, ended in disaster.

Ivan killed the Muslim Mongols. In these his only heir, and the so-called Time fierce tribes conquered all the princi- of T Troubles followed as Russia came palities except Novgorod. Under Mikhail, Russia Mongols for, recovered from her upheavals, but as Moscow his greatest legacy was his son Aleksey. In , he went the Great, founder of St Petersburg, was of a R was born. At the age On his return to R Russia he lost no time in enforcing of ten Peter ascended the westernizing reforms.

The memory of led to war with Sweden, seeing his family brutally killed caused at the time one of the strongest counthis hatred of Moscow and distrust of ries in Europe. By May Peter had its conservative, scheming society. Peter becomes co-tsar with half-brother Ivan V, under regency of his half-sister Sophia Peter becomes sole ruler. Her restless nature meant that her courtiers had to endure endless hunts and skating parties, and were required to keep her company at all hours.

Her riotous cross-dressing masquerades were notorious, as was her vast wardrobe, allegedly containing over 15, dresses. Anna was 37 at the time, and had spent most of her life in Germany. This was obvious in her choice of ministers and favourites, of whom many were German. Fashion and style, however, were imported from France and opera from Italy.

Though she herself was serious, plain and somewhat cruel, Anna did much Tsarina Elizabeth going for a stroll at Tsarskoe to put the court on a footing with the Selo, surrounded by eager courtiers most frivolous in Europe, as well as encouraging a flowering of civilization. Elizabeth was attractive, energetic and regular. Whether or not it was throne. Her chief legacy is the splendid death in , there were 40, in- Baroque architecture she commissionhabitants in the city and many more in ed, mainly designed by her favourite the surrounding labour encampments.

He returned with many ideas for reforms and architectural novelties which he put into practice in his new city. In , when the Swedish threat was over, the reluctant imperial family andgovernment were moved to this chilly, damp outland. But Peter was adaamant and soon a rational street plan, stone buildings and academies made St Petersburg a thriving capital in which fashions and discoveries from Europe were tried out before filtering through to therest of Russia.

This was abandoned due to the hazards of crossing the Neva, and the city spread out around the Admiralty instead. The Carpenter Tsar During his —8 tour of Europe, Peter to the left in this picture spent months at the Deptford Docks, labouring with his men to learn the basics of ship building. Based on Amsterdam, the original city grid was meant to follow a strict network of canals but this had to change see p A horrifying massacre took place in front of the year old Peter who saw his adviser and members of his family murdered.

In he took a terrible revengeby torturing over a thousand Streltsy Guards to death. Much of Peter and Paul Fortress pp66—7 also dates from this time. This elegant crystal goblet belonged to his close friend Alexander Menshikov and is engraved with his coat of arms. Marshy soil and a lack of local stone made construction difficult.

Thousands of labourers died during the first stages. The tsar was always portrayed as a cat on account of his moustache. Catherine I After an unsuccessful first marriage, Peter was drawn to a Lithuanian girl who had followed the army back from the wars in When Peter ascended the throne in Catherine had resided in Russia for 18 years and was fully fluent in Russian.

She had made it her duty to steep herself in the Russian culture R which she later came to adore. He was assassinated within days and she was crowned Catherine II. However, she left a country vastly enlarged after successful campaigns against Turkey and Poland. Determined to harness the wave of Russian patriotism, Alexander joined Britain and marched against Napoleon in Austria in After the crushing defeat at the battle of Austerlitz, however, the inexperienced tsar retreated, his army having lost 11, men.

At the Peace of Tilsit, signed in , Napoleon divided Europe into French and Russian spheres, lulling Alexander into a false sense of security. In the French emperor invaded Russia, but was defeated by its size and climate.

The Russian army followed his forces to Paris, taking part in the allied campaign which led Napoleon to abdicate in In celebration, Alexander commissioned a series of imposing public edifices in a fitting Empire style. Despite his part in the murder of his father Paul, much was expected of the handsome new tsar who was infected by the ideals of enlightened government.

Russia was by now desperately in need of reform. Of particular concern was the plight of the peasantry, who were tied to the land in serfdom. Murder of Paul I, Peter III becomes emperor but is murdered after six months. When his stern brother Nicholas was declared tsar in , these liberals rallied their soldiers to support the older brother Constantine, who had given up his rights to the throne, in the hope that he would be more open-minded.

Troops loyal to the tsar were instructed to fire on the rebels, killing hundreds before the leaders surrendered. The new tsar, Nicholas I, treated them with the severity which was to become the hallmark of his reign.

Five leading figures were hanged, and over a hundred exiled to Siberia. Finding himself in a city abandoned by its rulers and set on fire by its people, and with the Russian winter ahead, Napoleon was forced into a retreat over the frozen countryside. He eventually reached the border, with only 30, men left alive. They often lived above their means, mortgaging their serfs and lands to keep up with the astronomical costs of their luxurious lives. This was also a city in which the salary of a low ranking government clerk was never sufficient to feed a family.

In the countryside, tension was growing among the serfs tied to the large estates of the aristocracy. With such blatant inequality, growing pressure for political reform was inevitable. In , the tsar passed the Edict of Emancipation, abolishing serfdom, but requiring peasants to buy their land at far from advantageous terms.

Thus industrialization finally took off as peasants flocked to the big cities to work in factories, only to be met by even worse living conditions. She recognized the importance of the great Enlightenment philosophers Voltaire and Diderot, with whom she corresponded.

However, a peasant uprising in the s and news of the French Revolution in put paid to her liberal notions and, when she died, the majority of Russians were just as badly off as before. The medal is presented to Count Orlov for his victory over the Turks at Chesma in The guards regiments flocked to support her and the tsar was assassinated on 6 July.

He was arrested, but escaped to lead a widespread peasant uprising which broke out in and only ended with his execution in Quarenghi built the Neo-Classical Academy of Sciences in —5. Catherine is portrayed as Pallas Athena, goddess of wisdom and warfare, with her attributes of a shield and helmet. The fabric, used for a screen, was made by the Pernons factory, Lyons, in Mikhail Lomonosov A philosopher, historian, linguist and scientist, Lomonosov —65 personified the intellectual enlightenment of 18th-century Russia see p This sculpture of him as a boy by the seashore refers to his fisherman origins.

Grigoriy Potemkin —91 Of all her lovers, Catherine respected and admired Prince Potemkin the most. He was a successful general and an influential counsellor. They remained friends until his death. On 9th January a peaceful demonstration carried a petition to the tsar only to be met by bullets.

News of the massacre spread like wildfire and the Revolution broke out with strikes all over Russia. Tragically, civil rights and an elected he is said to have had the plans for a Russian parliament in his pocket Duma parliament with the right to veto legislation. This highradical changes had taken place, a revo- handed behaviour, along with the royal lutionary group murdered Alexander II.

But workers brought a surge of patriotbegan to get organized and opposition ism which the tsar was growing. Nicholas II took over a sought to ride. Costume design by Leon Bakst, from flourishing. A small group of St Petersburg artists, including Bakst and Benois, grew into an influential creative movement under the inspired leadership of Sergey Diaghilev.

Western art was introduced in their stylish World of Artt magazine, while their stage designs and costumes for the Ballets Russes see p brought Russian culture to the west. The tsar was forced to abdicate, his family put under arrest and a Provisional Government set up. But revolutionaries returning from exile organized themselves and, in October, an armed revolution overthrew the government see pp28—9. Alexander III becomes tsar. The army was desperately needed at home to fight the developing civil war.

It was the threat of the Whites rallying opposition around the royal family that led to their execution in July But the Whites were a disparate force and, by November , the last troops had abandoned the struggle, leaving a devastated Soviet Russia to face two years of appalling famine.

His slightly milder New Economic Policy allowed for private enterprise. This photo shows Pavlovsk see pp—9 in ated on the secret orders of Stalin see p Blamed on an anti-Stalinist cell, the assasination was used as the catalyst for five years of purges throughout the country.

He then rid of three quarters of his officers. When the Germans invaded Russia in The terror began in earnest with the they cut off Leningrad in less than collectivization of three months, subjecting the city to a agriculture which forced the peasants day siege see p which left to give up all livestock, machinery and more than two milland to collective lion people dead, half of them civilfarms. During this time, and in the ians. The Germans were eventually defeated, A first major purge of intellectuals took but the Russian people, who lost 20 place in urban areas in —9.

Then, million souls to the war, were subjected in December , Sergey Kirov, the to a renewed terror by Stalin, which party leader in Leningrad, was assassin- lasted until his death in March Exiled revolutionaries such as Lenin and Trotsky flooded into the city. In October, when soldiers had deserted from the front in droves, the revolutionary leaders decided on an armed uprising which brought the Communists to power.

The Ex-Tsar Nicholas II, seen here clearing snow at Tsarskoe Selo during his house arrest in March , was later taken with his family to Yekaterinburg where they were murdered. Their aim was the arrest of the Provisional Government, unsuccessfully defended by Cossacks. Lenin, Leader of the People A charismatic speaker, as shown in this painting by Victor Ivanov, Lenin returned from exile in April to lead the Revolution.

By , his Bolshevik faction had shown their determination to rule. Revolutionary Plate Various ceramics with revolutionary themes, mixed with touches of Russian folklore, were produced to celebrate every occasion, in this case the Third International. In he was murdered in Mexico by a Stalinist agent. Artists were employed to design posters spreading its message through striking graphics.

A great example of this new movement is Supremus No. Ministers of the Provisional Government tried to keep order but were arrested. New Values Traditions were radically altered by the Revolution; instead of church weddings, couples exchanged vows under the red flag.

Loudly trumpeted sexual equality meant that women had to work twice as hard — at home and in the factories. In foreign affairs, things were not so liberal. When Leonid Brezhnev took over in , the intellectual climate froze once more and the persecution of political dissidents was stepped up.

The first ten years of his regime were a time of relative plenty. But beneath the surface a vast black market and network of corruption was growing. The party apparatchiks, who benefited most from the corruption, had no interest in rocking the boat. When Brezhnev died in , the politburo was determined to prevent the accession of a younger generation.

He was followed by year-old Yuriy Andropov and, when he died, year-old Chernenko. Union achieved her greatest coup For the first against the West, launching the first Sputnik into space in That same time since year the dog Laika was the first living the eleccreature in space, aboard Sputnik II. The Soviets lost the race contained to put a man on the moon, but an element of genuine choice, their space programme worked as with rebels such as Boris powerful propaganda, backing Yeltsin and human rights camup the claims of politicians that paigner Andrey Sakharov Russia would soon catch up Spuknik II and the with and over-take the winning seats.

In , local space dog Laika, prosperity of the West. Yuriy Gagarin is first man in space missile crisis Death of Brezhnev; replaced by Andropov Brezhnev becomes General Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize for Literature Secretary Stalin dies Krushchev comes to power.

The social problems are still being resolved, and were not helped by a financial crisis in August Major companies have, however, continued to invest, and by early relative Demonstrations on Palace Square during the coup stability had been republics, and democrats in the major achieved. The elections of December Russian local councils.

It Federation. Putin is a graduate of the came after the military coup against St Petersburg State University and was Gorbachev in August , when Vice-Governor of the city. In St Petersburg no tanks were on the street, but nonetheless Sobchak rallied supporters of democracy.

By the end of the year, the Soviet Union no longer existed. To help you make the most of your stay, the following 12 pages are a timesaving guide to the best museums and palaces and the most interesting of the many bridges and waterways. The cultural figures that made St Petersburg a city of importance are also featured. Below is a selection of sights that should not be missed by any visitor. Bridges, necessary for communication between the islands, were also an excellent means to adorn the city with decorative sculptures, elaborate lampposts and wrought-iron work A walk or a boat trip see pp13 pp—7 is the best way to enjo W L Lieutenant Shm Rebuilt in —8 still retains its ori cast-iron seahorse designed by Bryul Lion Bridge One of the earliest of its kind, this pedestrian suspension bridge dates from —6.

Its cables are anchored inside four cast-iron lions, by sculptor Pavel Sokolov. Egyptian Bridge This bridge spanning the Fontanka was decorated in the Egyptian style fashionable at the time of its construction, in Swan Canal This tree-lined canal —19 leading out to the Neva is named after the swans which were once drawn to its peaceful waters. Bridge Passage Cleverly designed to span the confluence of the Moyka and the Griboedov, the Theatre and Small Stable bridges were constructed by Traitteur and Adam in — The bridge was rebuilt in , but the towers were kept.

Bank Bridge Dating from the same time as the Lion Bridge, and designed by the same team, this bridge is adorned by four magnificent cast-iron griffons. Its name derives from the nearby former Assignment Bank. From the Anichkov Bridge the river boats see pp —8 loop along the Neva, Fontanka and Moyka rivers, taking in many impressive bridges and landmarks. A pleasant wander along the embankments of the Griboedov Canal leads past imposing 19th-century apartment houses and fancifully decorated bridges.

In the winter months, one can walk on the frozen Neva. Icebound for at least four months of the year, the Neva usually shows the first signs of cracking in March. The official Opening of Navigation is announced by the port authority in mid-April. Until the Revolution the event was marked with great ceremony. The Commander of the Peter and Paul Fortress see pp66—7 , at the head of a naval flotilla, would scoop some icy water into a silver goblet which he presented to the tsar in the Winter Palace see pp92—3.

Inspired by Amsterdam, Peter the Great kept the many streams of the delta as canals, which also helped to drain the swampy ground. As the city grew new ones were dug to improve the canal network. The Moyka originally flowed from a swamp near the Field of Mars see p In the 19th century the aristocracy lined its quays with impressive NeoClassical mansions which are still their main attraction.

Canal boats and barges ply the 7-km 4-mile long Fontanka, widest and busiest of the waterways, which was once the border of the city. These two rivers are linked by the Kryukov Canal, dug in the 18th century. Today the atmosphere here is more tranquil. The stretch of water running south from the Lion Bridge is particularly picturesque. Nearby is the delightful Swan Canal which runs along the Summer Garden p Steady industrial growth in the 19th century prompted the construction of a new canal, the Obvodnyy, in , to take the increasing number of heavy cargo barges and supply water to the city outskirts.

The present structure, built early in the 20th century, replaced a seasonal pontoon bridge which linked the mainland to Vasilevskiy Island. Between these two is the Liteynyy Bridge Liteynyy most built in —9. In , the city authorities tried to prevent rebel workers crossing the Neva from the Vyborg Side by raising the central bridge span. The tactic failed since the revolutionaries decided to cross on foot over the frozen ice.

It has a central drawbridge and distinctive steel twin arches, erected in — From April to November almost all Neva bridges are raised at night to give ships access to the Volga see p The latter is cunningly designed to look like two bridges. Its cables are held up by two pairs of goldwinged griffons. The Lion Bridge Lvinyy most , also by Traitteur, uses a similar device; in this case the suspension cables emerge from the open jaws of four proud lions. The —4. The EmpireRed Bridge Krasnyy style decoration has most which carries survived and includes gilded fasces and doubleGorokhovaya ulitsa over headed eagles perched the Moyka, has preserved its original name.

Next to the Nevskiy prospekt, the Built in —14, this iron bridge is decorated with Anichkov Bridge Anichpicturesque lamps on kov most is famous for its four granite obelisks. Further down the crosses the Moyka river near to the Yusupov Fontanka, framed by a handsome Neo-Classical Palace see p Here the gilded lampposts are square by Carlo Rossi, is shaped to look like the Lomonosov Bridge treble clefs.

It of the nearby Glinka Capella. Its engineer, Yegor is ornamented with bronze Adam, also designed the lace- sphinxes and bridgeheads like patterning of the railings. Originally Griboedov meets the Moyka constructed in , the bridge is an interesting ensemble, collapsed under the weight of formed by the wide Theatre a passing cavalry squadron Bridge Teatralnyy most and but was rebuilt in The first flood, just three months after he started the fortress in , swept away his building materials.

The water rises dangerously high on average once a year, but four floods, in , , and , wrought massive damage. In the whole city went under water and buildings were totally destroyed. Markers showing record waterheights can be found by the Winter Canal and the Peter and Paul Fortress. In construction of a dam was begun to prevent future destruction.

Others, including the Russian Museum and the Summer Palace, highlight local art, history and cu Some of the most evocative museums are those commem the lives and work of famous artists, writers and music This selection represents the most interesting in each The Hermitage Incorporating the breathtaking state rooms of the Winter Palace, the world famous Hermitage holds nearly thr million exhibits which range from Arts to archaeological finds.

This semi-abstract work Blue Crest by Vasily Kandinsky dates from More specialist interests, from railway engines and military paraphernalia to insects and whales, also find reflection in the wealth of museums. No trip to the city is complete without a visit to at least one of the spectacular out-off town imperial summer residences, Peterhof see pp—51 , Pavlovsk see pp—61 or the Catherine Palace see pp—3 at Tsarskoe Selo.

An abundance of gold, lapis lazuli, malachite, marble and other precious minerals decorates many of the rich palace interiors. The palace parks and grounds are landscaped and filled with follies and monuments. At the centre of the city, the Winter Palace see pp92—3 is home to the Hermitage art museum and epitomizes the opulence of the court.

Overlooking the Moyka river is the Yusupov Palace see p which is famed as the murder scene of Rasputin, the extraordinary peasant who exerted his malign influence over the Russian court. For those in search of a tranquil setting, a pleasant day can be spent exploring the Yelagin Palace see p and the island of the same name. With collections ranging from Egyptian mummies to Scythian gold, Greek vases, Bedroom in the Chinese Palace s , Oranienbaum Colombian emeralds and a vast and dazzling array of Old Master, Impressionist and PostImpressionist paintings, it is essential to be selective.

The Russian Museum see pp— is a showcase for Russian art, including the 20thcentury avant-garde and the folk crafts which influenced it. Exhibitions from its holdings are also in the Mikhaylovskiy Castle see p , Marble Palace see p94 and Stroganov Palace see p There are fascinating displays of applied arts from around the world in the Stieglitz Museum see p which includes ceramics, wood carving, ironwork and embroidery.

Its interiors and the glass-roofed exhibition hall are equally impressive. The Cabin of Peter the Great see p73 was the earliest building to be constructed in the city and it offers an intriguing insight into the surprisingly humble lifestyle of this tsar. A group of historic sights lies within the Peter and Paul Fortress. The preserved cells of the grim Trubetskoy Bastion see p69 act as a reminder of the hundreds of political prisoners to be confined within the fortress walls.

A wealth of revolutionary memorabilia, including Stalin era posters and a huge propaganda stained-glass panel, can be found in the Museum of Russian Political History. The museum is located within the Kshesinskaya Mansion see p72 which, in , housed the Bolshevik headquarters.

The Cruiser Aurora see p73 also played a part in the Revolution, having fired a warning shot before the storming of the Winter Palace in October Housed under the same roof is a Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, displaying a large collection of artifacts from all over the world.

For natural history, the Zoological Museum see p60 encompasses most known life forms, including a unique collection of molluscs and blue corals. The Naval Museum see p60 fascinates all ages with its model ships, small boats, figureheads and flags, while the Artillery Museum see p70 covers military hardware, from pikes to ballistic missiles. Train enthusiasts will find plenty to enjoy in the Railway Museum see p , including an engine built for the Tsarskoe Selo railway.

The Museum of Musical Life in the Sheremetev Palace see p displays period instru- ments and explains the role of the Sheremetev family as leading music patrons in 19thcentury St Petersburg. A stunning array of beautiful stage costumes are on display alongside photos, set designs and other theatrical ephemera in the Theatre Museum which is situated on Ostrovskiy Square see p The Pushkin HouseMuseum see p , the Nabokov Museum see p and the Dostoevsky HouseMuseum see p recapture something of the life and character of their former residents.

The Anna Akhmatova Museum in the former service quarters of the Sheremetev Palace see p traces the dramatic life of the poetess who lived here for many years. For an insight into the life of a powerful Communist official of the s, visit the Kirov Museum Heroic Defenders of Leningrad poignantly evokes the Siege of Leningrad —4 and acts as an important reminder of the great hardships endured by St Petersburgers during World War II.

Outside the city in Repino see p , the house of the painter Ilya Repin is set in beautiful woodland on the Gulf of Finland. It was the perfect seed bed for creativity and the flowering of ideas. Institutions such as the Academy of Arts, the University, the Kunstkammer and the Imperial School of Ballet trained generations of cultural figures and scientists to the highest standards.

So successful were they that, by the dawn of the 20th century, St Petersburg had become one of the most important cultural centres in Europe. Ilya Repin This outstanding realist painter is seen here teaching life drawing at the Academy of Artss see p63 where he was a professor. Pyotr Tchaikovsky Tchaikovsky graduated from the Conservatory see p in and went on to compose his world-famous operas and ballets. Sergey Diaghilev Driving force behind the ets Russes, Diaghilev also oduced the influential Art magazine in his Liteynyy prospekt.

Akhmatova, seen here in a portrait by Nathan Altman, lived in the service quarters of the Sheremetev Palacee see p Many ts role in boosting the of the besieged citizens. Fascinating art collections, house-museums, theatres and concert halls evoke the memory of famous St Petersburgers. The world of the 18th-century genius Lomonosov and 19th-century writers Pushkin and Dostoevsky can be imagined.

So too, can the spirit of Russian ballet when dancers such as Anna Pavlova and Vaslaw Nijinsky thrilled the Mariinskiy audiences. During these early years of the 20th century, writers, musicians, dancers and painters flocked to St Petersburg, bringing with them a wealth of creativity. Nikolai Gogol —52 responded to these constraints by satirising the status quo.

Another aspect of the city altogether is revealed by Fyodor Dostoevsky — His novel Crime and Punishment, one of more than 30 works set in the city, takes place against a backdrop of squalor in the notorious slums of Sennaya Ploshchad see p Some of the most exciting poets of the period, including Aleksandr Blok — , Andrei Bely — and Anna Akhmatova — , gathered at The Tower, a flat overlooking the Tauride Gardens see p Bely later wrote Petersburg, one of the earliest stream-of-consciousness novels.

The refusal of the authorities to publish his poetry, which they condemned as decadent, finally forced him to emigrate in In , the Conservatoryy see p was founded by Anton Rubinstein —94 and this became the focus of musical life in St Petersburg. They were a largely self-taught group aiming to develop a musical language based on Russian folk music and Slav traditions. Many of them wrote operas premiered at the Mariinskiyy see p One of the musical geniuses of the 20th century was Igor Stravinsky — He spent much time abroad but, as works like The Rite of Springg testify, his cultural roots were firmly in his homeland.

In , a group of students rebelled against the Academy and went on to establish the Wanderers movement see p To some extent the Academy and the Wanderers became reconciled when the most versatile of these artists, Ilya Repin — , was appointed professor of painting at the Academy in Another collaborator, Leon Bakst — , designed the most famous of the Ballets Russes costumes.

Bakst also taught Marc Chagall — who later settled in France and had a profound impact on art in the West as well as in Russia. Other members of the Russian avant-garde include Kazimir Malevich — and Pavel Filonov — Works by all of these artists can be seen at the Russian Museum see pp— The skills of Russian dancers are legendary and the performances of the Mariinskiy Kirov Ballet Company continue to enthral audiences all over the world.

Since the dancers have been trained at the former Imperial Ballet School see p In — the outstanding choreographer at the Mariinskiy was Marius Petipa. He inspired a generation of dancers including Matilda Kshesinskaya see p72 , Vaslaw Nijinsky — and the legendary Anna Pavlova — The Mariinskiy tradition was revived after the Revolution by another graduate of the Ballet School, Agrippina Vaganova — Her groundwork paved the way for the modern generation of dancers including Rudolf Nureyev —93 and more recently, Galina Mezentseva and Emil Faskhoutdinov.

The pair then went on to direct The New Babylon , remarkable for its montage and lighting effects, and The Maxim Trilogyy — In its heyday Lenfilm produced 15 movies a year. Its two most remarkable Poster for The Youth of Maxim directed by Kozintsev The foundations of modern Russian science were laid in the 18th century by Mikhail Lomonosov —65 see p61 who worked for over 20 years in the Kunstkammer see p In , Dmitriy Mendeleev — , a professor of chemistry, compiled the Periodic Table of Elements.

In , the world-famous physiologist Ivan Pavlov — won the Nobel Prize for medicine for his theory of conditioned reflexes which he demonstrated by experimenting on dogs and their hearing responses. Pushkin left from here atal duel in 7 see p The elongated wings are still occupied by offices, flats and shops. Continued pp48—9 he Griboedov Canal, originally known as the Catherine Canal, was renamed in after the 19th-century Russian playwright Aleksandr Griboedov.

Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan Ninety-six Corinthian columns, arranged in four rows, form an arc facing Nevskiy prospekt. Bustling with life, this stretch of the avenue also has many sights of historic and architectural interest, including the Anichkov Palace. It is the oldest Roman Catholic church in Russia. This popular shopping mall is covered by a glass canopy stretching m ft. The arcade opened in and was reconstructed in Q Q Arcade —7 was built in as a watchtower for fires.

The Duma building was the centre of local government from — Portik Rusca Perinnyie Ryadi. The portico was midth centuryy see dismantled during the construction of p It houses more the metro and rebuilt in Gostinyy Dvor were built in —6 as trading rows. They were then handed over to the imperial chancellor and became known as the Cabinet.

Tchaikovsky was one of many composers who frequented their offices. Anichkov Bridge was first built as a present from Tsarina Elizabeth to her lover, Aleksey Razumovskiy. It later became the winter residence of the heir to the throne see p The Anichkov Palace Four dynamic bronze statues of rearing horses and their tamers adorn this well-known landmark.

They were designed in the s by Pyotr Klodtt see p Every official holiday, as of summer and about, whether to ski or icewell as some local festivals such skate in the winter months or gather as City Day, are celebrated both in the mushrooms in late summer and autumn. They then gather bunches of willow as a symbol of the approaching Palm Sunday. Once the snows have gone, the first trips to the dacha, or country house, are made to put the gardens in order.

Men rush around the city buying flowers for their womenfolk. It is a Musical Spring in St Petersburg Muzikalnaya Candles lighting up Russian Orthodox church during Easter service tradition to say s prazdnikom congratulations on the holiday to everyone. There are even special performances and concerts and, however sexist it may seem to non-Russians, it is a very popular day. As warm clothing and heavy boots are laid aside after the cold winter months, the public flock to concert halls throughout the city.

Space exploration was one of the glories of the Soviet Union and this occasion is celebrated with fireworks at 10pm. Public holiday. Peterhof Fountains Fontany v Petergofe , first weekend in May. Bands and orchestras accompany the switching on of the famous fountains at Peterhoff see p Victory Day Den Pobedy , 9 May. After a sombre ceremony at Piskarevskoe Cemeteryy see p , smartly-dressed veterans fill Nevskiy prospekt see pp46—9 and Palace Square see p83 in commemoration of the Nazi surrender in City Day Den goroda , last week of May.

A great variety of events, mainly taking place around the Peter and Paul Fortress see pp66—7 , mark the founding of the city on 27 May A celebration of 20th-century art and music in a city-wide festival. Easter Sunday Paskha. The dates on which Lent and Easter fall change every year. On Easter Sunday, St Petersburg churches are filled with worshippers, the evocative sound of ethereal music and chanting and the smell of incense. Russians traditionally greet each other with Khristos voskres Christ is risen , to which the reply is Voistine voskres Proud war veteran on Victory Day He is truly risen.

From mid-June to midJuly, it never gets dark. During the winter months the days are extremely short, but there can be days of bright sunshine. Hours 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan Dec Performances and events for children are held throughout the city. Russia Day Den Rossii , 12 Jun. Trinity Sunday Troytsa , 50 days after Easter. Believers and atheists alike go to tidy the graves of their loved ones and raise a glass of vodka for their souls.

A Festival of Festivals A lilac in flower is the real symbol that warm weather has set in and there is an air of excitement once the Field of Mars see p94 comes into bloom. Throughout the warm months, the city is deserted at weekends when people go off to their dacha, usually situated around the pine forests in the area northwest of the city. Concerts, ballets and other performances take place all over the city, which fills with thousands of visitors see p The most favoured place to be at nighttime is on the embankments of the Neva, which are crowded with revellers watching the bridges being raised at 2am.

Zvezdy Belykh nochey , late Jun. This is the original White Nights festival, with first-class opera, classical music and ballet concerts performed at all major venues. Numerous outdoor rock concerts are held at the Peter and Paul Fortress see pp66—7. Festival-festivaley f , last week in Jun. This is an international non-competitive film festival showing the best international films released over the past year.

The festival attracts film stars from all over the world. Tsarskoe Selo Carnival Tsarskoselskiy karnaval , last weekend in June. Funny costumes, music and mayhem fill the centre of Tsarskoe Selo see pp—5. JULY Sporting Competitions St Petersburg has become an increasingly popular sporting venue in recent years, offering everything from tennis to yachting.

The Neva resembles a shipyard, with submarines and torpedo boats adorned with flags and bunting. In winter frequent snowfalls build up to create metre-high drifts, usually not thawing until late March. Rainfall from axis Snowfall from axis Popular hunting spots can be found to the northwest of the city around Zelenogorsk and City life begins to gain pace Repino see p Enthusiastic as people return from their mushroom-gatherers rise early dacha and families begin to to hunt for chanterelles, oyster prepare for the start of school.

The locals are skilled in identifying edible cultural life resumes. The Mariinskiy Kirov mushrooms while amateur returns from pickers should be touring, and aware of the new plays and dangers of operas are poisonous ones. An activity with fewer premiered. October marks the start of the potential side-effects festival season, with might be a trip on the Chanterelle mushrooms hydrofoil to Peterhof guest musicians and see pp—51 to see theatre groups from all over the world taking part.

The city is full of children heading for their first day back at school, laden with flowers. Actors, clowns and pantomime artists gather from the Baltic countries to perform in theatres and on the streets with two weeks of mayhem. A reminder that the Russian Federation is a multinational country with various religions and political parties.

A chance to catch up with some of the most avant-garde trends in jazz and contemporary classical music from Russia and the rest of Europe. Summers are warm and often punctuated with hot days as early as May, though during the winter months temperatures often fall below freezing. Cross-country skiing needs no lessons to make it fun.

Tsarskoe Selo see pp—5 and Pavlovsk see pp—61 parks provide ski and sledge hire at the ski bases lyzhnaya baza. Skates can be hired for use in the rink at Moskovskiy Park Pobedy, by Park Pobedy metro station in the southern suburbs, and also at the Central Park of Culture and Rest Krestovskiy Ostrov metro station. In the midst of winter activities come New Y Year and Christmas.

New Y Year is the big holiday, while Christmas itself is celebrated according to the Orthodox calendar, on 7 January. Many people also still Drilling a hole through the ice for winterr time fishing Sledging on the frozen Neva outside the Hermitage see pp84—93 celebrate Old New Y Year, which falls on 14 January. Fireworks are set off all over town at 10pm.

This classical music festival is the last one of the year and is made even more magical by the outside backdrop of snowy streets and frozen waterways. This is considered to be a family celebration, with people dressed as Grandfather Frost the Russian equivalent of Santa Claus and the Snow Maiden, the traditional bearers of gifts. Christmas is celebrated in a quieter fashion than Easter, with a traditional visit to an evening service on Christmas Eve 6th , when the church bells ring out all over the city.

Men are congratulated and given flowers and presents. However, or Strelka. The rest of the island lack of access the first perdeveloped with the spread of industrialization in the manent bridge was not built until and the 19th century and it hazards of floods and became a middleclass haven. The Academy of Sciences and St Petersburg University are situated here, as are various museums, institutes and libraries, housed in the former warehouses and customs buildings.

The nautical theme is preserved in the Naval Museum and the two Rostral Columns. In front of these lighthouses is a lawn, a popular spot for newly married couples to have their picture taken. From here there are views across the Neva towards the Peter and Paul Fortress see pp66—7 and the Hermitage see pp84— Naval Museum. It now has over 17 million volumes. At the time a busy market filled its Neo-Classical loggias. Today students have replaced the shoppers, as the building houses departments of the university.

The exchange became redundant Birzhevaya ploshchad. Map 1 C5. Beneath the magnifiSituated on the Strelka cent coffered ceiling of before the Naval the spacious trading Museum, the impressive hall is an exhibition twin russet-coloured on the history of the Rostral Columns were Russian and Soviet designed as lighthouses by navy from its origins Thomas de Thomon in under Peter the Great to the present day.

During the 19th century the oil lamps were Pride of place belongs to the botik, the small replaced by gas torches which are still lit on masted wooden vessel on ceremonial occasions. Following a which Peter learned to sail. Volga, Dnieper and Volkhov. There is also a superb diorama of the storming of the Winter Palace see pp28—9 on the second-floor landing.

Tsentralnyy Voenno-Morskoy These were redesigned only muzey in to present a more balanced view of events, such Birzhevaya ploshchad 4. K, K, K, K, K The building was designed by the Swiss architect Thomas de Thomon and was modelled on one of the famous Greek temples at Paestum in Italy.

Tell Dioramas recreate natural habitats for giant crabs, weasels, polar bears and blue whales. The museum is renowned for its collection of mammoths. One prized carcass was exhumed from the frozen wastes of Siberia in and is almost 44, years old. He transported it to St Petersburg and exhibited it to a wide-eyed public, who were enticed by free glasses of vodka.

Most gruesome of all is the collection of pickled oddities which include Siamese twins and a two-headed sheep. The halls surrounding the Kuntskammerr collection contain exhibitions on the peoples of the world. Unfairly neglected by most foreign visitors, these marvellously old-fashioned displays present a vast and informative range of artifacts, from an Inuit kayak to Javanese shadow puppets. Twelve Colleges 5 square with an unbroken view across the Strelka. Domenico , K Trezzini won the competition T This distinguished for the design in , but subsequent bureaucratic Baroque building of red-and-white stuccoed wrangling delayed its completion for 20 years.

Overlooking the Neva, outside the T Twelve Colleges, is an engaging bronze statue of the great 18th-century polymath Mikhail Lomonosov unveiled in The son of a fisherman, Lomonosov was the first Russian-born member of the nearby Academy of Sciences. Map 5 B1. The ochre-painted Baroque Menshikov Palace, with its beautifully carved pilasters, was one of the earliest stone buildings in St Petersburg.

The palace estate originally extended as far as the Malaya Neva river to the north. His notorious extravagance and venality eventually caught up with him. Accused of treason, he died in exile in Guests would cross the Neva by boat and arrive to the grand welcome of a liveried orchestra. Adorning the beautiful vaulted hallway are marble statues imported from Italy which include a Roman Apollo dating to the 2nd century AD. A series of breathtaking rooms are lined with hand-painted blue and white 18th-century Dutch tiles.

Tiles were not only fashionable, but also a very practical means of deterring flies and dust. Hanging behind it is an exquisite 17th-century Flemish tapestry. Menshikov and Peter often received guests in the aptly named Walnut Study which has Persian walnut panelling and commanding views of the Neva. The mirrors were a novelty at that time and such displays of vanity were anathema to the Orthodox Church. The Great Hall, decorated in gold and stucco, is where balls and banquets were held.

The present Baroque church with its distinctive steeple-like bell tower was constructed by Aleksandr Vist in — The most stunning feature of the interior is the elaborately carved 18th-century iconostasis which incorporates icons from the original church. The innate conservatism of the Academy tended to discourage innovation and experiment and in a band of 14 students walked out of their graduation exams in protest.

They went on to found a realist art movement and became known as the Wanderers or peredvizhniki see pp—7 p. The splendid Neo-Classical halls and galleries, though faded, retain something of their original grandeur. Of note are the Conference Hall on the first floor, with its ceiling painting by Vasiliy Shebuev, and the adjoining Raphael and Titian galleries, adorned with copies of Vatican frescoes.

Flanking the river stairs outside the Academy are two sphinxes from the 14th century BC. Discovered among the ruins of Thebes in ancient Egypt, they were installed here in The faces are thought to bear a likeness of the pharaoh Amenhotep III. Originally known as the Nicholas Bridge, this was the first permanent crossing of the Neva when it opened in The bridge commemorates Lieutenant Pyotr Shmidt, a sailor on the cruiser Ochakov, who led an uprising of the Black Sea fleet in Building began with the accessible from the city centre.

The bridge caused a housing construction of a wooden fortress and Petrogradskaya, or the boom at the height of a fashion Petrograd Side, soon became a for Style-Moderne architecture which is still in evidence today. It was first built in wood and was later replaced, section by section, in stone by Domenico Trezzini. Th foun still pro ceremon medals and The N Bastion where the cannon is fire tradition began in , stopped after the revolution and was resumed in Map 2 E3.

The main entrance to the Peter and Paul Fortress is through two contrasting arches. It depicts St Peter casting down the winged sorcerer Simon Magus. The bell tower was completed first to test the foundations and this served as an excellent viewpoint from which Peter could oversee the construction work of his new city.

The gilded needle phones, symphoniums and spire, crowned by a weatherpiano accordions of the period. The interior, with its glittering chandeliers, pink and green Corinthian columns and overarching vaults, is also a 3 far cry from the traditional Russian Orthodox church. This masterpiece of gilded woodPetropavlovskaya krepost. Map 2 D4. Zarudnyy and executed in the 10am—6pm Thu—Mon; 11am— s by Moscow craftsmen.

The sarcophagi are all of a uniform this magnificent church white Carrara marble, except within the fortress in Map 2 D3. Tell , Architectural backdrops and historical paintings give way to an engaging miscellany of artifacts, ranging from model boats to duelling pistols and court costumes.

In a controversial decision was taken to rebury the remains of the last Romanov tsar, his wife and children, and the servants that died together with them, in a chapel by the entrance to the cathedral. The Grand Ducal Mausoleum, where relatives of the tsars are buried, was added to the northeast of the cathedral at the end of the 19th century.

Over the years, political prisoners, including the Decembrist rebels see p23 , were brought here for interrogation and sentencing. The house is now a museum, with a ground-floor exhibition on medieval settlements in the St Petersburg region, and temporary exhibitions upstairs.

Map 2 E4. The appropriately dour, grey gateway dates from 69 Neva Gate leading from the river into the Peter and Paul Fortress —7 and is unornamented apart from an anchor in the pediment. In the archway, brass plaques mark record flood levels.

Unjustly accused of treason in by his overbearing father, Alexis escaped abroad only to be lured back to Russia with the promise of a pardon. For the next years prisoners were incarcerated in the much feared Secret House, since demolished. In a new prison block opened in the Trubetskoy Bastion which has existed as a museum since On the ground floor there is a small exhibition of period photographs, prison uniforms and a model of the guardroom. Upstairs are 69 isolation cells, restored to their original appearance, while downstairs there are two unheated, unlit punishment cells where the recalcitrant were locked up for 48 hours at a time.

Once every two weeks, all detainees were taken to the Bath House in the exercise yard for de-lousing. Here prisoners were also put in irons before being carted off to penal servitude in Siberia. Generations of rebels and anarchists were interrogated and imprisoned here, including Leon Trotsky in the wake of the Revolution.

Other prominent detainees were the leading Decembrists in see p23 , Dostoevsky in see p and, in —6, the anarchist Prince Pyotr Kropotkin. Designed by Russian architects, its minarets, majolica tiling and the rough granite surfaces of the walls are fully in keeping with the surrounding Style-Moderne architecture. The mosque was, in fact, modelled on the Mausoleum of Tamerlane in Rocket launcher in the courtyard of the Artillery Museum Samarkand and involved Central Asian craftsmen.

Since its Map 2 D3. Designed by Pyotr house has indiviof name to Music Hall dually designed Tamanskiy and constructed in suggests. The adjoining s buildings turrets, spires, reliefs — 60, the building was Griffon, No. Other buildings of military vehicles, including The park still draws crowds interest include No.

Sergey Kirov lived see p72 ; p72 on 3 April This was where pantomime artists, wild animal trainers, magicians and circus acts Map 2 D2. Developed during the construction boom of the late s, this eye-catching avenue is noted for its Style-Moderne architecture. The first house, at No. The forms such as doors and winmovement, known as Style dows are broken up, distorted Moderne in R Russia, began in the decorative arts and was then or given unexpected curves. Inspired by as the city underwent a building boom, new industrial techniques, artists and particularly on Petrogradskaya.

The city architects made lavish use of natural became a showcase for the talents of stone and brick, wrought iron, stucco, leading architects such as Fyodor Lidval coloured glass and ceramic tiles. Asymmetrical in composition, it is enlivened with wrought iron and glazed tiles see p The rich exterior detailing is matched by elegant shop-fittings and chandeliers inside see p Delicate details such as floral and animal reliefs stand out against a background of discreetly elongated proportions and unusual window shapes.

Ornate StyleModerne wroughtiron balconies and decorative wooden window frames combine with elements of Renaissance and Baroque revivals. His apartment, preserved as it was in his lifetime, is an example of the near cult status awarded Party leaders, with documents and photographs chronicling his political career, and a touching array of memorabilia including his shooting attire and favourite books. Map 2 D1. As the charismatic first Secretary of the Leningrad Communist Party, Kirov soon gained national importance.

His increasing popularity led Stalin to see in him a potential rival. On 1 December , Kirov was gunned down at his office at the Smolnyy Institute see p by Leonid Nikolaev, a party malcontent. This remarkable example of Style-Moderne architecture was commissioned for prima ballerina Matilda Kshesinskaya. Designed in by the court architect, A von Gogen, the building is almost playfully asymmetric with a single, octagonal tower.

Most eyecatching of all are the many contrasting building materials with bands of pink and grey granite, cream-coloured bricks, delicately ornamented iron railings and majolica tiles. The most impressive interior is the splendid recital hall with its pillared archway and palms.

The mansion, previously home to a museum glorifying the October Revolution, now houses a Museum of Russian Political History. The museum keeps up to date with temporary exhibitions covering recent political history, taking in the theory and consequences of perestroika and the policies of contemporary parties.

She was equally famous for her celebrated affair with the tsarevich, later Tsar Nicholas II, which began soon after she graduated. Kshesinskaya emigrated to Paris in where she married the Grand Duke Andrey Vladimirovich, another member of the imperial family and the fatherof her year old son. It was in Paris that she wrote her controversial memoirs, Dancing in St Petersburg, which tells the tale of her affair with the last Russian tsar.

Map 2 F3. Phone to book. According to the annals of the Revolution, at pm on 25 October , the cruiser Aurora signalled the storming of the Winter Palace see p28 , by firing a single blank round from its bow gun. The ship entered active service in It was later converted into a training ship and at the start of the Siege of Leningrad see p27 it was sunk to protect it from German forces.

The ship was raised in , days later, and has been a museum since Catherine the Great, ever keen to glorify Peter, had a protective brick shell erected round the cabin. There are only two rooms, both with period furnishings, and a hallway which doubled as a bedroom. Adorning the steps outside are two statues of the Shih Tze frog-lions, brought from Manchuria during the RussoJapanese War —5. Throughout the early 18th century, the whole of Petrogradskaya was known as Trinity Island. During the Communist era, the square became known as ploshchad Revolyutsii, commemorating those who had lost their lives.

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Store your valuables in the safe. Sports enthusiasts are welcome in the fitness center. Leisure activities include a sauna. Guests are invited to visit the indoor swimming pool. Guests can choose from a variety of relaxing massage treatments in the hotel spa. Parking is available nearby. Friendly staff at the hour front desk will be glad to answer your questions. Meals are delivered to guest rooms on request. There is a laundry at the hotel. The number of extra beds depends on the room category.

You must take a look at the information about the size of the selected room. Price of an additional breakfast: Information about the type of meals included in the price is indicated in the rate details. Pets are allowed for an additional fee. Price of accommodation: 1, You can request the documents necessary for a visa, the service is provided for an additional fee.

Any additional fee will have to be paid even if the booking is subsequently cancelled, and all the agreements exist exclusively between you and the provider of the documents. Hotels booking. Hotels in Russia. Hotels in Repino. View prices. All Facilities and Services. TripAdvisor rating. Choose dates Destination. Show prices.

Guests reviews Average guests' rating - 9. Hotel features A variety of local and international dishes are served in the on-site restaurant. Important City Info. If the accompanying persons are not legal guardians, they are required to provide the notarized consent form of the legal guardians one of them and the birth certificate of the minors. A foreign citizen is subject to registration at the place of stay: At the address of the hotel or other organization providing hotel services.

To fill out the arrival notification form, a foreign citizen presents to the receiving party an identity document, a migration card except for cases when a foreign citizen is released from the obligation to fill out a migration card in accordance with an international agreement of the Russian Federation and or a residence permit or a temporary residence permit for a foreign citizen permanently or temporarily residing in the Russian Federation.

In case of arrival of a foreign citizen to a new place of stay, required to provide their identity document and immigration card, and proof of check-in information from the former hotel in Russian Federation. Hotel Description Opened: Number of Rooms: Offering a range of spa and fitness facilities including a large indoor pool, a gym and badminton courts, this health club in Repino is just a minute walk from the Baltic Sea Coast.

Transportation Services. Shuttle bus service Additional fee. Spa Additional fee. Front Desk Services. Cleaning Services. Public Area. Wi-Fi in public areas Free. Business Services. Meeting room Additional fee. Kid's Facilities. How much does it cost to stay at ForRestMix Club? Prices at ForRestMix Club are subject to change according to dates, hotel policy, and other factors. To view prices, please search for the dates you wish to stay at the hotel. The closest airport is Pulkovo Airport.

It is What are the check-in and check-out times at ForRestMix Club? Does ForRestMix Club provide airport transfer services? What amenities and services does ForRestMix Club have? Does ForRestMix Club have a swimming pool? Does ForRestMix Club have fitness amenities? Does ForRestMix Club have non-smoking rooms? Yes, ForRestMix Club has non-smoking rooms. Please view the hotel listing for details. Does ForRestMix Club have children's amenities?

Is ForRestMix Club nearby popular attractions? Haven't found the right hotel yet? View More Hotels in Repino. About About Trip. Other Services Investor Relations Trip. Payment Methods.

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