Gender lens investing is the practice of investing for financial return while also considering the benefits to women, both through improving economic. Mercury Asset Management plc was a leading British investment management business. Successor, Merrill Lynch. Headquarters, London, UK. Key people. The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City. RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTING MAGAZINE One compliance continuous delivery with your Kubernetes Engine. Users gain can set file transfer, into the. I've not difficulties in hostile behaviour while preventing, without trying.
The firm's viability was later called into question as the crisis intensified in September On October 15, , as the crisis had begun to unravel, Allan Sloan , a senior editor for Fortune magazine, wrote: . So let's reduce this macro story to human scale.
We found this issue by asking mortgage mavens to pick the worst deal they knew of that had been floated by a top-tier firm - and this one's pretty bad. This issue, which is backed by ultra-risky second-mortgage loans, contains all the elements that facilitated the housing bubble and bust. It's got speculators searching for quick gains in hot housing markets; it's got loans that seem to have been made with little or no serious analysis by lenders; and finally, it's got Wall Street, which churned out mortgage "product" because buyers wanted it.
As they say on the Street, "When the ducks quack, feed them. On September 21, , Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, the last two major investment banks in the United States, both confirmed that they would become traditional bank holding companies.
During the financial crisis, the Federal Reserve introduced a number of short-term credit and liquidity facilities to help stabilize markets. Some of the transactions under these facilities provided liquidity to institutions whose disorderly failure could have severely stressed an already fragile financial system. In , Goldman Sachs started a "Returnship" internship program after research and consulting with other firms led them to understand that career breaks happen and that returning to the workforce was difficult, especially for women.
The goal of the Returnship program was to offer a chance at temporary employment for workers. Goldman Sachs holds the trademark for the term 'Returnship'. According to a BrandAsset Valuator survey taken of 17, people nationwide, the firm's reputation suffered in and , and rival Morgan Stanley was respected more than Goldman Sachs, a reversal of the sentiment in Goldman refused to comment on the findings.
The bond will be repaid from toll revenue. Goldman Sachs managed both of Apple's previous bond offerings in the s. In June , Goldman Sachs purchased the loan portfolio from Brisbane-based Suncorp Group , one of Australia's largest banks and insurance companies. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. Later that month, the company opened its third-largest global office, in Bangalore. In June , Goldman Sachs introduced a new corporate typeface, Goldman Sans, and made it freely available.
After Internet users discovered that the terms of the license prohibited the disparagement of Goldman Sachs, the bank was much mocked and disparaged in its own font, until it eventually changed the license to the standard SIL Open Font License.
In March , Goldman Sachs announced it was winding down its business in Russia in compliance with regulatory and licensing requirements. Also during that same month, Goldman Sachs announced it had acquired the Chicago -based open-architecture digital retirement advice provider, NextCapital Group.
Goldman Sachs offers services in investment banking advisory for mergers and acquisitions and restructuring , securities underwriting , asset management and investment management , and prime brokerage. It is a market maker and brokers credit products, mortgage-backed securities , insurance-linked securities , securities , currencies , commodities , equities , equity derivatives , structured products , options , and futures contracts. It is a primary dealer in the United States Treasury security market.
It provides clearing and custodian bank services. It operates private-equity funds , credit and real estate funds, and hedge funds. It structures complex and tailor-made financial products. It trades both on behalf of its clients flow trading and for its own account proprietary trading. Goldman Sachs reports its environmental and social performance in an annual report on Corporate social responsibility that follows the Global Reporting Initiative protocol.
Goldman has been criticized in the aftermath of the financial crisis of — , where some alleged that it misled its investors and profited from the collapse of the mortgage market. Treasury, Goldman made some of the largest bonus payments in its history due to its strong financial performance.
He went on to say that he was "mystified" by the interest the government and investors have shown in the bank's trading relationship with AIG. Some have said, incorrectly according to others,  that Goldman Sachs received preferential treatment from the government by being the only Wall Street firm to have participated in the crucial September meetings at the New York Fed, which decided AIG's fate. Much of this has stemmed from an inaccurate but often quoted New York Times article.
Bloomberg has also reported that representatives from other firms were indeed present at the September AIG meetings. On January 23, , a federal jury rejected the Bakers' claims and found Goldman Sachs not liable to the Bakers. Goldman Sachs was charged for repeatedly issuing research reports with extremely inflated financial projections for Exodus Communications and Goldman Sachs was accused of giving Exodus its highest stock rating even though Goldman knew Exodus did not deserve such a rating.
Goldman Sachs is accused of asking for kickback bribes from institutional clients who made large profits flipping stocks which Goldman had intentionally undervalued in initial public offerings it was underwriting. Documents under seal in a decade-long lawsuit concerning eToys.
The clients willingly complied with these demands because they understood it was necessary in order to participate in further such undervalued IPOs. A report by Citizens for Tax Justice stated that "Goldman Sachs reports having subsidiaries in offshore tax havens, of which are in the Cayman Islands , despite not operating a single legitimate office in that country, according to its own website. Goldman is being criticized for its involvement in the European sovereign debt crisis.
Goldman Sachs is reported to have systematically helped the Greek government mask the true facts concerning its national debt between the years and Ties between Goldman Sachs and European leadership positions were another source of controversy. In the letter, he attacked Goldman Sachs CEO and Chairman Lloyd Blankfein for losing touch with the company's culture, which he described as "the secret sauce that made this place great and allowed us to earn our clients' trust for years". Smith said that advising clients "to do what I believe is right for them" was becoming increasingly unpopular.
Instead there was a "toxic and destructive" environment in which "the interests of the client continue to be sidelined", senior management described clients as " muppets " and colleagues callously talked about "ripping their clients off". According to research by The New York Times after the op-ed was printed, almost all the claims made in Smith's incendiary Op-Ed about Goldman Sachs turned out to be "curiously short" on evidence. The New York Times never issued a retraction or admitted to any error in judgment in initially publishing Smith's op-ed.
In , two former female employees filed a lawsuit against Goldman Sachs for gender discrimination. Cristina Chen-Oster and Shanna Orlich claimed that the firm fostered an "uncorrected culture of sexual harassment and assault" causing women to either be "sexualized or ignored". Several people on the list of former employees of Goldman Sachs have later worked in government positions.
Notable examples include former U. During Goldman Sachs received criticism for an apparent revolving door relationship, in which its employees and consultants moved in and out of high-level U. Government positions, creating the potential for conflicts of interest and leading to the moniker "Government Sachs".
Additional controversy attended the selection of former Goldman Sachs lobbyist Mark A. Patterson as chief of staff to Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner , despite President Barack Obama 's campaign promise that he would limit the influence of lobbyists in his administration.
In , Goldman Sachs investment banker David Brown pleaded guilty to charges of passing inside information on a takeover deal that eventually was provided to Ivan Boesky. In April , Goldman director Rajat Gupta was named in an insider-trading case. According to the report, Gupta had told Goldman the month before his involvement became public that he wouldn't seek re-election as a director.
Rajaratnam used the information from Gupta to illegally profit in hedge fund trades He was also a board member of AMR Corporation. Gupta was convicted in June on insider trading charges stemming from Galleon Group case on four criminal felony counts of conspiracy and securities fraud. Unlike many investors and investment bankers, Goldman Sachs anticipated the subprime mortgage crisis that developed in In late , Goldman management changed the firm's overall stance on the mortgage market from positive to negative.
As the market began its downturn, Goldman "created even more of these securities", no longer just hedging or satisfying investor orders but, according to business journalist Gretchen Morgenson, "enabling it to pocket huge profits" from the mortgage defaults and that Goldman "used the C. The investments were called synthetic CDOs because unlike regular collateralized debt obligations , the principal and interest they paid out came not from mortgages or other loans, but from premiums to pay for insurance against mortgage defaults - the insurance known as " credit default swaps ".
Goldman and some other hedge funds held a "short" position in the securities, paying the premiums, while the investors insurance companies, pension funds, etc. The longs were responsible for paying the insurance "claim" to Goldman and any other shorts if the mortgages or other loans defaulted.
But while Goldman was praised for its foresight, some argued its bets against the securities it created gave it a vested interest in their failure. In the Senate Permanent Subcommittee hearings, Goldman executives stated that the company was trying to remove subprime securities from its books. Unable to sell them directly, it included them in the underlying securities of the CDO and took the short side, but critics McLean and Nocera complained the CDO prospectus did not explain this but described its contents as "'assets sourced from the Street', making it sound as though Goldman randomly selected the securities, instead of specifically creating a hedge for its own book".
In April , the U. Unlike many of the Abacus securities, AC1 did not have Goldman Sachs as a short seller, in fact, Goldman Sachs lost money on the deal. Paulson and his employees selected 90 BBB-rated mortgage bonds   that they believed were most likely to lose value and so the best bet to buy insurance for. Goldman also stated that any investor losses resulted from the overall negative performance of the entire sector, rather than from a particular security in the CDO.
Some experts on securities law such as Duke University law professor James Cox, believed the suit had merit because Goldman was aware of the relevance of Paulson's involvement and took steps to downplay it. Others, including Wayne State University Law School law professor Peter Henning, noted that the major purchasers were sophisticated investors capable of accurately assessing the risks involved, even without knowledge of the part played by Paulson.
Critics of Goldman Sachs point out that Paulson went to Goldman Sachs after being turned down for ethical reasons by another investment bank, Bear Stearns who he had asked to build a CDO. Ira Wagner, the head of Bear Stearns's CDO Group in , told the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission that having the short investors select the referenced collateral as a serious conflict of interest and the structure of the deal Paulson was proposing encouraged Paulson to pick the worst assets.
Critics also question whether the deal was ethical, even if it was legal. According to McLean and Nocera, there were dozens of securities being insured in the CDO - for example, another ABACUS  - had credits from several different mortgage originators, commercial mortgage-backed securities, debt from Sallie Mae, credit cards, etc. Goldman bought mortgages to create securities, which made it "far more likely than its clients to have early knowledge" that the housing bubble was deflating and the mortgage originators like New Century had begun to falsify documentation and sell mortgages to customers unable to pay the mortgage-holders back  - which is why the fine print on at least one ABACUS prospectus warned long investors that the 'Protection Buyer' Goldman 'may have information, including material, non-public information' which it was not providing to the long investors.
According to an article in the Houston Chronicle , critics also worried that Abacus might undermine the position of the US "as a safe harbor for the world's investors" and that "The involvement of European interests as losers in this allegedly fixed game has attracted the attention of that region's political leaders, most notably British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, who has accused Goldman of "moral bankruptcy".
This is, in short, a big global story Is what Goldman Sachs did with its Abacus investment vehicle illegal? That will be for the courts to decide, But it doesn't take a judge and jury to conclude that, legalities aside, this was just wrong. On August 1, a federal jury found Tourre liable on six of seven counts, including that he misled investors about the mortgage deal. He was found not liable on the charge that he had deliberately made an untrue or misleading statement.
A provision of the financial deregulation law, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act , allows commercial banks to enter into any business activity that is "complementary to a financial activity and does not pose a substantial risk to the safety or soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally".
Some critics, such as Matt Taibbi, believe that allowing a company to both "control the supply of crucial physical commodities, and also trade in the financial products that might be related to those markets", is "akin to letting casino owners who take book on NFL games during the week also coach all the teams on Sundays". When Goldman Sachs management uncovered the trades, Taylor was immediately fired. In , Taylor plead guilty to charges and was sentenced to 9 months in prison in addition to the monetary damages.
These financial products disturbed the normal relationship between supply and demand , making prices more volatile and defeating the price stabilization mechanism of the futures exchange. A June article in The Economist defended commodity investors and oil index-tracking funds, citing a report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that found that commodities without futures markets and ignored by index-tracking funds also saw price rises during the period.
In a July article, David Kocieniewski , a journalist with The New York Times accused Goldman Sachs and other Wall Street firms of "capitalizing on loosened federal regulations" to manipulate "a variety of commodities markets", particularly aluminum, citing "financial records, regulatory documents, and interviews with people involved in the activities". Goldman has dealt with this requirement by moving the aluminum - not to factories, but "from one warehouse to another" - according to the Times.
In August , Goldman Sachs was subpoenaed by the federal Commodity Futures Trading Commission as part of an investigation into complaints that Goldman-owned metals warehouses had "intentionally created delays and inflated the price of aluminum". Forrest in Manhattan. According to Lydia DePillis of Wonkblog, when Goldman bought the warehouses it "started paying traders extra to bring their metal" to Goldman's warehouses "rather than anywhere else. The longer it stays, the more rent Goldman can charge, which is then passed on to the buyer in the form of a premium.
Michael DuVally, a spokesman for Goldman Sachs, said the cases are without merit. Investment banks, including Goldman, have also been accused of driving up the price of gasoline by speculating on the oil futures exchange. In August , "confidential documents" were leaked "detailing the positions"  in the oil futures market of several investment banks, including Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley , JPMorgan Chase , Deutsche Bank , and Barclays , just before the peak in gasoline prices in the summer of The presence of positions by investment banks on the market was significant for the fact that the banks have deep pockets, and so the means to significantly sway prices, and unlike traditional market participants, neither produced oil nor ever took physical possession of actual barrels of oil they bought and sold.
Journalist Kate Sheppard of Mother Jones called it "a development that many say is artificially raising the price of crude". Climate Progress quoted Goldman as warning "that the price of oil has grown out of control due to excessive speculation" in petroleum futures, and that "net speculative positions are four times as high as in June ", when the price of oil peaked.
According to Joseph P. Kennedy II , by , prices on the oil commodity market had become influenced by "hedge funds and bankers" pumping "billions of purely speculative dollars into commodity exchanges, chasing a limited number of barrels and driving up the price". The commission granted an exemption that ultimately allowed Goldman Sachs to process billions of dollars in speculative oil trades.
Other exemptions followed, . The sale - approved on January 30, - sparked protest in the form of the resignation of six cabinet ministers and the withdrawal of a party Socialist People's Party from Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt 's leftist governing coalition. Protesters in Copenhagen gathered around a banner "with a drawing of a vampire squid - the description of Goldman used by Matt Taibbi in Rolling Stone in ". However, U.
Additionally, Goldman Sachs gave "incomplete and unclear" responses to information requests from SEC compliance examiners in about the firm's securities lending practices. In , U. Prosecutors investigated whether the bank failed to comply with the Bank Secrecy Act , which requires financial institutions to report suspicious transactions to regulators. At the same time, the Malaysian government agreed to drop all criminal charges against the bank and that it would cease legal proceedings against 17 current and former Goldman directors.
Some commentators argued that Goldman secured a very favorable deal. We agree that life there has to get better, and we made the investment in part because we believe it will. In , Goldman faced scrutiny after a group of first year bankers told managers that they are working hours a week with 5 hours sleep at night.
They also said that they have been constantly experiencing workplace abuse that have seriously affected their mental health. In May , Goldman Sachs announced that they will be implementing a more flexible vacation policy to help their employees 'rest and recharge'. Even giving senior bankers unlimited vacation days and all employees are expected to have a minimum of 15 days vacation every year. Goldman Sachs employees have donated to both major American political parties, as well as candidates and super PACs belonging to both parties.
In , the Securities and Exchange Commission issued regulations that limit asset managers' donations to state and local officials, and prohibit certain top-level employees from donating to such officials. Donations to Hillary Clinton 's presidential campaign were not barred by the policy, since neither Clinton nor her running mate Tim Kaine was a sitting state or local official. Notable current non-employee members of the board of directors of the company are M.
Johnson , Ellen J. The company's officers are listed on its website as follows: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American investment bank. Traded as. Operating income. Net income. See also: Goldman—Sachs family. See also: Goldman Sachs Foundation.
Main article: Goldman Sachs controversies. This section may be too long and excessively detailed. Please consider summarizing the material while citing sources as needed. March See also: s commodities boom.
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