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On a roadshow to court investors for the IPO, GM executives saw there was incredible demand for the stock. So much so that GM raised the. NEW YORK (onlineadvertisement.xyz) -- General Motors will raise a record $ billion in its initial public offering. The automaker priced its common. GM CEO Dan Akerson on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange before the start of trading of the company's initial public offering. ENFOREX MARBELLA ALBERGUE DE ANIMALES Independent third-party sieht das. Manage multiple desktop right earned low. LogMeIn Pro enjoys widespread must take a strategic most handheld an easy-to-use trials, as goal in with the appropriate governance.

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In Flint, police attempted to enter the plant to arrest strikers, leading to violence; in other cities the plants were shuttered peacefully. In , GM established Detroit Diesel. In , the company founded Motors Insurance Corporation and entered the vehicle insurance market. In , GM introduced the Hydramatic , the world's first affordable and successful automatic transmission , for the Oldsmobile. In , GM's William S. Knudsen served as head of U.

Sloan, head of GM at the time, was an ardent opponent of the New Deal , which bolstered labor unions and public transport , and Sloan admired and supported Adolf Hitler. Eisenhower as United States Secretary of Defense. In December , GM acquired Euclid Trucks , a manufacturer of heavy equipment for earthmoving , including dump trucks , loaders and wheel tractor-scrapers , which later spawned the Terex brand.

In April , Alfred P. Sloan retired as chairman and was succeeded by Albert Bradley. The company used the mark as their main corporate identifier until In , GM released the Electrovan, the first hydrogen fuel cell car ever produced. In the s, GM was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines but quickly lost interest as popularity of muscle cars increased. GM demonstrated gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene , an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration due to the oil crisis.

In , GM produced the first rear wheel anti-lock braking system for two models: the Toronado and Eldorado. In , the Oldsmobile Toronado was the first retail sold car with a passenger airbag. In , for its models, GM installed its first catalytic converters. From to , GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies. However, it had disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac V variable-cylinder engines.

In , GM acquired In , in conjunction with AeroVironment , GM built the Sunraycer , which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle also built by Aerovironment and was the predecessor to the General Motors EV1.

It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact was produced as the EV1 for the model year and was available through only via lease from certain dealers in California and Arizona. In —, GM ceased production of the vehicles and started to not renew the leases, disappointing many people, allegedly because the program would not be profitable and would cannibalize its existing business.

All of the EV1s were eventually returned to General Motors and, with the exception of around 40 which were donated to museums with their electric powertrains deactivated, all were destroyed. The documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car?

In November , John F. Smith Jr. In , in a return to its automotive basics, GM completed the corporate spin-off of Electronic Data Systems. Chevrolet Tahoe hybrid vehicle. Second generation Chevrolet Volt. Later, the company debuted another hybrid technology, co-developed with DaimlerChrysler and BMW, in diesel-electric hybrid powertrain manufactured by Allison Transmission for transit buses.

GM began adding its " Mark of Excellence " emblem on all new vehicles produced and sold in North America in mid However, after the reorganization in , the company no longer added the logo, saying that emphasis on its four core divisions would downplay the GM logo. In , Edward T. Welburn , was promoted to the newly created position of vice president, GM Global Design, making him the first African American to lead a global automotive design organization, and the highest ranking African American in the US motor industry at that time.

On July 1, , he retired from General Motors after 44 years. He was replaced by Michael Simcoe. In , GM introduced a bright yellow gas cap on its vehicles to remind drivers that cars can operate using E85 ethanol fuel. In , General Motors committed to engineering half of its manufacturing plants to be landfill-free.

In order to achieve its landfill-free status, production waste is recycled or reused in the manufacturing process. In late , the world's largest rooftop solar power installation was installed at GM's manufacturing plant in Zaragoza. The Zaragoza solar installation has about 2,, square feet , m 2 of roof at the plant and contains about 85, solar panels.

The installation was created, owned and operated by Veolia Environment and Clairvoyant Energy, which leases the rooftop area from GM. General Motors filed for a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization on June 8, In , the company shut down its Saturn Corporation and Pontiac brands after failing to find a buyer for the brands, and sold Hummer to Tengzhong.

In July , after 40 days of bankruptcy protection, the company emerged from the government-backed General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization. In November , GM again became a public company via an initial public offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date. The company returned to profitability in In , GM introduced the Chevrolet Volt as an extended-range electric vehicle EREV , an electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline, or series plug-in hybrid.

General Motors Sequel , a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM. The Chevrolet Bolt EV was released in late The production version was unveiled at the Los Angeles Auto Show. In , GM revived one of its idled U. This was the first time that GM produced a subcompact car in the United States since the Chevrolet Chevette ended production in On July 2, , GM and Honda announced a partnership to develop fuel cell systems and hydrogen storage technologies for the time frame.

GM and Honda are leaders in fuel cell technology, ranking first and second, respectively, in total fuel cell patents filed between and , with more than 1, between them according to the Clean Energy Patent Growth Index. Barra also joined the GM board. The second generation had an upgraded drivetrain and improved battery system that increased the all-electric range from 38 to 53 miles 61 to 85 km. In March , General Motors acquired Cruise , a San Francisco self-driving vehicle start-up, to develop self-driving cars that could be used in ride-sharing fleets.

In October , GM began production of the Chevrolet Bolt EV , the first ever mass market all-electric car with a range of more than miles km. In December , General Motors began testing self-driving vehicles on public roads in Michigan after Governor Rick Snyder signed bills legalizing the operation of autonomous vehicles.

In , GM introduced its Super Cruise autopilot feature into certain models of its cars. Strobe's prototypes produce brief "chirps" of frequency-modulated FM laser light, where the frequency within each chirp varies linearly. Measuring the phase and frequency of the echoing chirp allows the system to directly measure both the distance and the velocity of objects in the road ahead. Strobe, Cruise and GM will work together to develop the technology for future self-driving cars.

In May , General Motors received pushback on its plan to release a fleet of up to 2, modified Chevrolet Bolt electric vehicles. The company planned to release these vehicles by Q4 of as part of initiatives to build a controlled self-driving fleet. In April , the company shut down Maven , a car-sharing service in the United States. In September , GM and Honda announced an alliance to cooperate on purchasing, research, and vehicle development. On January 8, , GM introduced a new logo alongside a tagline "EVerybody in", with the capitalized "EV" as a nod to the company's commitment to electric vehicles.

On January 28, , GM announced that it will end production and sales of fossil-fuel vehicles including hybrids and plug-in hybrids by as part of its plan to reach carbon neutrality by In , GM announced plans to establish an automotive battery and battery pack laboratory in Michigan. An existing GM facility at Brownstown Township was chosen to be upgraded as battery pack plant. For the Chinese market, most of its cars are manufactured within China.

The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15, , when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. Buick is strong in China from early introduction by the Canadian Buick sold to the last Emperor of China, later being led by the Buick Regal subcompact. The last emperor of China owned a Buick. The Cadillac brand was introduced in China in , starting with exports to China.

GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in the mids as well. As part of this push, GM transferred Buick Sail to that brand as an attempt to appeal to Chinese middle-class buyers looking for small and affordable cars.

In , GM opened an auto research center as part of a US million corporate campus in Shanghai to develop gasoline- hybrid cars , electric vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles , engines, and new technologies. GM products are also currently sold by the company Yanase Co.

GM withdrew from Indonesia in March The plant was affected by the pullout of the Chevrolet brand from Europe. It produced Ravon, Chevrolet, and Daewoo branded vehicles. This interest was sold to the Government of Uzbekistan in In , GM became the first car maker to manufacture cars in India. GM entered the market for the second time in GM continues to manufacture cars for the export market from its Talegaon Dhamdhere , Maharashtra plant, which has a capacity of , units annually.

GM stopped production of the Chevrolet Sonic in Thailand in mid GM has a long history in Egypt which began in the s with the assembly of cars and light pickup trucks for the local market. In the mid of the s, GM withdrew from the Egyptian market.

Some years later, the Ghabbour Brothers began to assemble Cadillac , Chevrolet , and Buick models up to the s. In the s Miller Brothers Nigeria was founded as an importer of commercial vehicles of the Bedford brand into the country. In the plant and its distribution network were split into different companies and renamed as Federated Motors Industries. Its facility located in Nairobi assembled a wide range of Isuzu trucks and buses including the popular Isuzu N-Series versatile light commercial vehicle, TF Series pick-ups and Isuzu bus chassis.

In , GM sold its General Motors began operating in South Africa in through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Motors South Africa and was a market that briefly had its own local brand, Ranger. By , it was targeting the production of 50, cars a year but was being hampered by national labor unrest, strikes, and protests.

In , sales of fully imported Holden vehicles into New Zealand began. New Zealand assembly of Holdens began in and by the end of the s Holdens replaced all Chevrolets and Pontiacs both in , and most Vauxhalls. Opel, Bedford, and Isuzu, vehicles were assembled or imported at different times during the s, s, and s. All local General Motors assembly plants in New Zealand closed by In , the first fully manufactured Australian car, the Holden , was released to great fanfare amongst the Australian public.

It was marketed as "Australia's Own" Holden, and became an iconic feature of post-war Australian culture. However, in August , less than twelve months later, sales of Opel ceased due to low sales. On December 10, , GM announced that Holden would cease manufacturing operations in Australia by the end of In , GM discontinued the Holden brand due to poor reception and sales, shutting the facilities where they were produced.

GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing. An unmodified Aurora V8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America.

Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. The Chevrolet Camaro ZL1 is the only entry in the series. In , Chevrolet became the first brand to reach wins. The drivers' championship was won by the closely linked, now defunct, HSV Dealer Team in and General Motors was the largest global automaker by annual vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years, from when it overtook Ford Motor Company , until , when it was overtaken by Toyota.

This reign was longer than any other automaker, and GM is still among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. In , the third-largest individual country by sales was Brazil with some , GM vehicles sold. In , General Motors sold 6. In , General Motors ranked second worldwide with 8. In , vehicle sales in China by GM rose The Chevrolet brand was the main contributor to GM performance, with 4. Based on global sales in , General Motors was ranked among the world's largest automakers.

In May , GM recorded an Annual worldwide sales volume reached 10 million vehicles in Weak product line-up and below par service quality were the reasons for the poor showing by GM in India that year. Notable members of the board of directors of the company are as follows: [2]. General Motors has a close relationship with the Nature Conservancy and has fundraised for and donated cash and vehicles to the charity. In , GM commissioned five designer-original vehicles, sold in silent auction for Concept: Cure, to benefit the Nina Hyde Center for breast cancer research, founded by Ralph Lauren.

The program involved five designers, each lending their artistic talents to customize five different vehicles. Since , GM has been a source of funding for Safe Kids Worldwide 's "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program, an initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection. The — Flint sit-down strike against General Motors changed the United Automobile Workers UAW from a collection of isolated local unions on the fringes of the industry into a major labor union and led to the unionization of the domestic United States automobile industry.

After the first convention of UAW in , the union decided that it could not survive by piecemeal organizing campaigns at smaller plants, as it had in the past, but that it could organize the automobile industry only by going after its biggest and most powerful employer, General Motors Corporation , focusing on GM's production complex in Flint, Michigan. Organizing in Flint was a difficult and dangerous plan. GM controlled city politics in Flint and kept a close eye on outsiders.

According to Wyndham Mortimer , the UAW officer put in charge of the organizing campaign in Flint, he received a death threat by an anonymous caller when he visited Flint in GM also maintained an extensive network of spies throughout its plants. This forced UAW members to keep the names of new members in secret and meeting workers at their homes. As the UAW studied its target, it discovered that GM had only two factories that produced the dies from which car body components were stamped: one in Flint that produced the parts for Buicks , Pontiacs , and Oldsmobiles , and another in Cleveland that produced Chevrolet parts.

While the UAW called for a sit-down strike in Flint, the police, armed with guns and tear gas, attempted to enter the Fisher Body 2 plant on January 11, The strikers inside the plant pelted them with hinges, bottles, and bolts. The president urged GM to distinguish a union so the plants could re-open. The strike ended after 44 days.

That development forced GM to bargain with the union. John L. GM's representatives refused to be in the same room as the UAW's, so Governor Frank Murphy acted as a courier and intermediary between the two groups. Governor Murphy sent in the U.

National Guard , not to evict the strikers, but rather to protect them from the police and corporate strike-breakers. The two parties finally reached agreement on February 11, , on a one-page agreement that recognized the UAW as the exclusive bargaining representative for GM's employees who were members of the union for the next six months. The tool and die strike of , also known as the "strategy strike", was an ultimately successful attempt by the United Auto Workers Union UAW to be recognized as the sole representative for General Motors workers.

In addition to representation rights, the UAW, working jointly with the Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO , sought to resolve existing grievances of skilled workers. However, the strike ended with the dissatisfaction of Walter Reuther and the UAW, and the workers received only a On September 24, , General Motors workers represented by the United Auto Workers union went on strike against the company.

The first US-wide strike against GM since was expected to idle 59 plants and facilities for an indefinite period of time. Talks broke down after more than 20 straight days of bargaining failed to produce a new contract. Major issues that proved to be stumbling blocks for an agreement included wages, benefits, job security and investments in US facilities.

Two car assembly plants in Oshawa, Ontario , and a transmission facility in Windsor closed on September However, on September 26, a tentative agreement was reached, and the strike's end was announced by UAW officials in a news conference at 4 a. On the morning of September 15, , after talks broke down to renew their contract, which expired earlier that day, the United Auto Workers announced that GM employees would begin striking at PM. Between and , GM allegedly deliberately monopolized the sale of buses and supplies to National City Lines NCL and its subsidiaries, in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of , with the intention to dismantle streetcar systems in many cities in the United States and make buses, sold by GM, the dominant form of public transport.

Unsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader , published in , is a book accusing car manufacturers of being slow to introduce safety features, and reluctant to spend money on improving safety. It relates to the first models of the Chevrolet Corvair — that had a swing axle suspension design which was prone to 'tuck under' in certain circumstances. In substitution for the cost-cutting lack of a front stabilizer bar anti-roll bar , Corvairs required tire pressures that were outside of the tire manufacturer's recommended tolerances.

The Corvair relied on an unusually high front to rear pressure differential 15 psi front, 26 psi rear, when cold; 18 psi and 30 psi hot , and if one inflated the tires equally, as was standard practice for all other cars at the time, the result was dangerous over-steer. In early March , several media outlets, including The New Republic and The New York Times , alleged that GM had tried to discredit Ralph Nader , hiring private detectives to tap his phones and investigate his past, and hiring prostitutes to trap him in compromising situations.

Nader's lawsuit against GM was ultimately decided by the New York Court of Appeals , whose opinion in the case expanded tort law to cover "overzealous surveillance". NHTSA had conducted a series of comparative tests in studying the handling of the Corvair and four contemporary cars — a Ford Falcon , Plymouth Valiant , Volkswagen Beetle , and Renault Dauphine — along with a second-generation Corvair with its completely redesigned, independent rear suspension.

The page report reviewed NHTSA's extreme-condition handling tests, national crash-involvement data for the cars in the test as well as General Motors' internal documentation regarding the Corvair's handling. This review panel concluded that 'the —63 Corvair compares favorably with contemporary vehicles used in the tests [ Journalist David E.

Davis noted that despite Nader's claim that swing-axle rear suspension were dangerous, Porsche , Mercedes-Benz , and Volkswagen all used similar swing-axle concepts during that era. General Motors paid compensation for deaths linked to the faulty switches. The recall involved about 2. In , the Australian Strategic Policy Institute accused at least 82 major brands, including General Motors, of being connected to forced Uyghur labor in Xinjiang.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American multinational automotive manufacturing company. Traded as. September 16, ; years ago [1] original company July 10, ; 12 years ago present company. Detroit, Michigan. Jacobson CFO [2]. Automobiles Automobile parts Commercial vehicles. Operating income. Net income. Further information: History of General Motors. This section may require copy editing for most sentences, which start with "In [year]".

You can assist by editing it. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Chevrolet Volt. Further information: General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization. Main article: Flint sit-down strike. Main article: Tool and die strike of Main article: General Motors strike. Main article: General Motors streetcar conspiracy. Main article: General Motors ignition switch recalls.

United States portal Michigan portal Cars portal Companies portal. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved May 2, The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 3, General Motors. Archived from the original on February 16, Motor Trend. September 20, Automotive News. Archived from the original on October 9, Archived from the original on February 24, CS News. December 20, April 30, September 14, February 15, February 24, Sloan, Jr.

Automotive Hall of Fame". August 25, Harvard University Press. United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. United States Government Publishing Office. ISBN American chemical engineer Britannica". The Nation. Archived from the original on May 10, Detroit Free Press. Design Issues. To Expand Operations. May 25, April 7, October 31, ASTM International. Archived from the original on October 30, DTE Energy. Hemmings Motor News. The Guardian. The Jerusalem Post. Jewish Virtual Library. The Washington Post.

August 8, Construction Equipment. April 3, Motor Trend Group. Hydrogen Technology: Mobile and Portable Applications. Archived from the original on January 1, Archived from the original on December 3, Archived from the original on December 14, Mercury News. Associated Press. June 15, Archived from the original on March 8, Conklin Systems. November 21, Archived from the original on September 27, GM and Lockheed Martin want to make new ones".

Archived from the original on July 14, August 2, January 19, Gerstenberg, 92, G. July 26, July 9, Chicago Tribune. June 6, Acquires January 23, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 12, August 15, April 4, Picks Its Next Chairman". November 30, CBS News. September 6, Archived from the original on August 29, Sells Its Lotus Group to Bugatti".

Bloomberg News. August 28, April 2, Los Angeles Times. The Wall Street Journal. January 16, United Press International. February 2, Archived from the original on February 28, Car and Driver. The Journal of Commerce.

April 5, January 13, August 27, USA Today. Archived from the original on August 28, August 26, Archived from the original on September 28, Archived from the original on September 16, Archived from the original on August 7, April 26, July 8, Archived from the original on March 9, BBC News.

March 30, Vow to Slim Includes Top Ranks". Archived from the original on January 20, Archived from the original on October 18, Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original on September 3, December 10, Archived from the original on December 25, October 9, Archived from the original on March 19, Archived from the original on June 10, Chairman's Task: Bring Fresh Perspective".

July 10, Asks Its Chief to Resign". Archived from the original on September 24, Archived from the original on May 14, Archived from the original on October 15, Archived from the original on October 21, Investor Category Subscription times Qualified Institutions [. The public issue closes on Oct 6, for bidding. By Popular Stock Brokers. Angel One. Paytm Money. IIFL Securities. Best Discount Broker in India.

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