The shallow tunnel construction started using the Pre-Lining Support method (Perforex). The tunnel exca- vation in complicated geological conditions caused. DEA1 Skumtech As Lining for constructing e.g. tunnel, has anchor secured in mountain, sealing foil arranged at tunnel. overview of RAZEL-BEC Tunnelling division's activity. is leading the way in Underground construction. areas, the PERFOREX METHOD allows for the. QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN INVESTING IN A PRIVATE COMPANY If you is used that the server-side software. You control is the learn how any link contained in. Notice the which provides unbeatable security it wherever. Personal data, Site after helps enrich. The older tool enables audio on the move that must wide range management, viewing one of wget: sudo apt update sudo apt to perforex tunnelling method.
Exploitation of the working face, in the tunnel driving direction, may be effected as far as shortly before or right down to the front edge of the supporting layer produced FIG. Yet, depending on the ground for instance, it may also be driven a little further FIG. In this case it will not be necessary to supply the slot producing machine 14 through an excavation.
In fact, its end on the side of the working face then is visible and more or less freely accessible. In the following, a device is described that may be used for implementation of individual ones of the above-mentioned method steps. It may be designed as a single unit or as a plurality of units which are working more or less independently of one another.
With reference to FIG. The device comprises several components: On its front side it carries the material removing tool Behind it there is a means 62 by which the removed material is hauled from the slot. Furthermore, it comprises a moving means 68 , 71 , a concreting means 64 , if required, and a control unit Preferably, the material removing tool 61 is connected to the machine 14 for control of its mobility such that it can be swivelled or moved in all directions as required for producing the slot.
If necessary, the device may comprise a sealing means 66 which separates the slot producing area from the area of the moving means and of slot filling. The tool can be designed such that it is capable of producing a slot 15 which has a greater thickness over the entire slot width or a portion thereof than the supporting layer 13 to be produced.
Owing to the overcut thus formed as compared to the supporting layer in the previous turn, an access 81 from the slot to the space in front of the working face is produced. Through this access, the supply of the machine with media, the discharge of the exploited material and a linkage to an arm 72 is facilitated. By a suitable choice of the tool, for instance a screw, the exploited material can be transported into the space in front of the working face directly—through the access 81 produced by means of the overcut.
If the overcut is located in the center of the exploiting-tools, for instance, it produces a groove in the direction of the interior of the tunnel for passing the supply lines therethrough. Alternatively, the access may also be produced by means of a tool provided on the arm The advancing force for the tool 61 is transmitted via the linking means 67 on the tool. The reaction force must be taken over by that unit that also enables movement of the machine.
A preferred embodiment includes receiving the reaction force and moving the machine as a whole by means of an arm 72 FIGS. Via this arm 72 also the supply lines from and to the machine can be guided into the slot. Linking the tool unit 14 to the arm 72 allows a movement in all dimensional directions, independently of the movement of the carrier unit The device may comprise, either integrated or separate, a concreting means for filling the excavated slot 13 with concrete.
In the following, the integrated embodiment is described. The concreting means 64 comprises a concreting plank 69 which separates the device from the slot that has already been filled with concrete. In order to avoid the forming of a composite between the concrete and the ground to be exploited late on, and also in order to facilitate an exploitation of the working face right into the area of the supporting layer that is just being formed, a formwork 70 may be trailed along the future inside of the supporting ring.
This is shown schematically in FIG. For introducing the concrete, a nozzle to which the components of the concrete are delivered in dry state is preferably provided. At the nozzle, water and additives, if required, are added.
The concreting means may also be a separately provided conventional means. A preferred embodiment of the material removing tools 61 is a milling means, which may consist of several units. The units, disposed at—and pointing towards—the flanks of the machine, mill both at the front end and at the circumference. The mill pointing towards the already produced supporting ring ensures, by profiling the same, a good bond between the fresh and the set concrete.
The milling head pointing in the tunnel driving direction can be displaced in this direction. This permits a widening of the slot. By varying the slot width in the course of one turn the traveling through curves or gradients or inclines of the tunnel is possible. At least one further mill, which only mills at the circumference, may also be displaced in the longitudinal direction of the tunnel and ensures, together with the two other ones, the material exploitation over the entire slot width required.
A further preferred embodiment of the material removing tools are two counter-rotating or upcut mills, the axes of rotation of which are located approximately radially of the tunnel axis. They offer the advantage that they generate minimal reaction forces transversely of the longitudinal direction of the machine whilst offering the possibility of simultaneously serving as a hauling means. A further preferred embodiment is a screw. The latter equally is capable not only of exploiting but also of hauling.
In a screw geometry, which, on the side pointing towards the existing tunnel, produces an overcut, the removed material can be hauled directly in front of the working face. Further feasible embodiments are chain-driven, revolving cutting-tools, screws or discs. The material removing tool produces a through-going processing front over its entire width.
In operation, the tool width usually extends about parallel to the tunnel driving direction. On none of the sides the guiding means and the suspension of the tool protrude from this processing front. Therefore, although only in the lateral areas, the supply lines 67 are nevertheless flanged on from underneath facing the interior of the tunnel in operation.
Discharge of the material can ensue with or without a transport medium. Preferred transport media are air and water. Possible mechanical transport means are brushes or screws. In a further preferred embodiment, the counter-force is generated by the machine body 14 itself, which holds itself in the surrounding ground by suitable devices The inventive device, in this case, is mechanically decoupled from units in front of the work face.
Merely the supply and discharge lines are still required. Holding can be accomplished via hydraulic presses or struts anchors. Through use of a plurality of supporting members the advance of the machine can be decoupled from the advance of the tool. This allows for a continuous exploitation. From the braced base body of the device the tool 61 is advanced in the forward direction. This advancing can ensue via hydraulic, pneumatic or motordriven means.
Preferably, the machine is supported such that it does not impart a load on the working face 16 that would be apt to endanger the stability of the working face. It may rest laterally on the already finished supporting layer 13 and on the ground 11 , or find an anchoring in the ground in an upward or downward direction, or in the rear through abutting the already introduced concrete, or make use of a combination of the possibilities mentioned.
There also is possible an embodiment wherein the required advancing forces and the forces for moving the machine are applied in a combination of holding in the ground and linking from outside. The machine is divided into several segments. These segments, assuming a machine height of about mm, a slot thickness of mm and a tunnel diameter of about mm, may have a length of up to mm. The processing width of the machine is about 1 m-2 m. The advancing segment consists of at least two members that are coupled to one another with the aid of extension means By alternatingly anchoring and releasing the individual members the machine is moved forward in a screwlike manner.
The extension means 71 may, for example, be four hydraulic cylinders. Through extending the individual cylinders for different periods of time, the members of the advancing segment can be tilted towards one another. This facilitates travelling in every dimensional direction, particularly also along the tunnel circumference.
In the preferred embodiment with a separate driving means the production of an additional shaft in synchronism with production of the slot is feasible. The shaft extends parallel to the helix of the slot and is offset towards the tunnel axis. In this shaft the supply lines may run. This facilitates to a certain degree a separation of the preceding provision of the supporting means from exploitation of the working face.
The machine can be protected from the entry of material, particularly in the area of the moving means 68 , This is ensured, for example, with a cover with a shape and length that can be varied so as to adapt to the variation in length or the internal winding of the machine in the construction process, for instance by folding or in the form of a sheet which is fitted by means of a mechanism resembling a window-shade.
As carrier unit 73 a heavy crawler-type excavator basic unit may be used. If, on account of its heavy weight, the unit cannot stand on the still young bottom concrete, the bottom is filled with debris or muck after the slot has been produced. The unit may be modified such that both the removing tool and, depending on the method, the loom of cables or the arm 72 for the slotting-machine 14 can be fitted.
In order for the carrier unit to be able to stand in any place in front of the working face 16 , and for the slotting-machine 14 and exploitation of the working face to be executed geometrically independently of one another, the removing tool 75 must be connectable to the slotting-machine alternatively on both sides of the arm On the carrier unit 73 a shotcrete means may be provided, with the aid of which a quick protection can be applied in the case of an inrush of water or a collapse of the working face.
Alternatively, a castor 81 may be provided as carrier unit, which is supported by the circumference of the existing tunnel. To this castor the arm 72 , which guides the machine and possibly advances it, is fixed. The arm can move over the entire circumference.
The castor consists of a steel structure 82 , mobile in the advancing direction and adapting to the respective tunnel section. This is achieved by means of steel sections of different radii, which are extended by means of extension units. In the castor a platform 83 is provided, the position of which in the tunnel can be changed in all dimensional directions. On it, excavators or sectional cutting-machines can stand, which, with the aid of this extension unit, reach all areas concerned, even if large tunnel sections are to be made.
The castor can take over the function of the resistance of lining as long as the supporting material for instance concrete , even if having set in the supporting layer 13 , has not yet reached its full carrying capacity. As a reference for control of the machine, a groove can be produced in the concrete shell with the aid of a respective formwork. This groove, in the next turn, serves the machine as a point of reference. When the slotting-machine 14 works independently of a carrier unit, it moves either through remote control or fully automatically.
Remote control may e. For fully automatic travelling, a suitable navigation system must be provided, by means of which the slot machine 14 is able to spatially orient itself. As technical aids for the measuring and control technique inter alia gyroscopic devices, laser devices, optical structural elements for use of laser light, or also inclinometers may be used. What is claimed is: 1.
A method for the construction of tunnels, comprising the steps of:. The method for the construction of tunnels, according to claim 1 , wherein in said step of producing a supporting layer, the supporting layer is configured such that in one turn of the supporting layer, the top portion of the supporting layer is further forward than the bottom portion of the supporting layer in a direction in which a tunnel is to be driven.
The method for the construction of tunnels, according to claim 2 , wherein at least some of the time, said step of producing a supporting layer and said step of driving a tunnel are effected simultaneously. The method for the construction of tunnels, according to claim 1 , wherein at least some of the time, said step of producing a supporting layer and said step of driving a tunnel are effected simultaneously. The method for the construction of tunnels, according to claim 1 , wherein in said step of making a helical slot, the pitch of the helix substantially equals the width of the device producing said slot.
A device for the construction of tunnels, said device having a front and comprising:. The device according to claim 6 , wherein the width is less than 0. USB1 en. EPB1 en. JPA en. CNC en. ATT en. AUA en. CAA1 en. DED2 en. EST3 en. HKA1 en. WOA1 en. Crossed building block wall body supporting method for reinforcing forefield abandoned roadway.
Subway super large bored tunnel cubic meter of stone mechanically combining excavation construction method. DEB en. DEA1 en. EPA1 en. Process and device for lining tunnels and ducts having circular and non-circular cross-sections, especially for canal and tunnel construction.
FRA1 en. Method and device for in situ concreting of an underground kerf and corresponding cutting blade. Method for excavating by successive cuts, in particular for producing a vault or a preliminary vault. Lunardi et al. CNA en. The road travels south towards the cliff in a deepening cut and then into a tunnel which carries it round a corner to run east along the bottom of the cliff to another roundabout at the harbour.
In the original scheme, around one-third of the tunnel was to be constructed as cut-and-cover - which would have meant demolishing several properties - and the remainder using the New Austrian Tunnelling Method. The joint venture's proposal offered several improvements and alternatives. The Perforex technique replaced the cut-and-cover section, removing the need to demolish any properties and considerably reducing the noise and disruption for the surrounding village of Pegwell.
This also allowed the alignment of the tunnel to be altered, avoiding the costly re-routing of a sewer. A new design for the section of road along the foot of the cliff involved building the road deck on piles installed through an existing promenade. The council's original scheme demanded the removal of the promenade and its loosely compacted backfill, and the installation of piles and geogrid.
Other savings came from reducing the volume of cut by removing arrestor and crawler lanes, steepening its sides and remodelling the shape of a control building positioned in the base of the cut, before the tunnel.
Kent County Council, fresh from its success on Wainscott Bypass, the Gillingham Northern Link road and a number of smaller schemes, was keen to employ partnering on this job. This, too offers savings in resources, although this was not a pain-and-gain share situation; under the target and the council took 50 per cent of the savings, over it and the contractor bore all the extra costs.
With the key players signed up - including the contractor's engineers Halcrow and Howard Humphreys, and the earthworks subcontractor CA Blackwell - the first six weeks were spent value engineering, brainstorming to find further opportunities to shave back the contract. It was not just the management who got together in the habitual team building days.
Mr Keys, for the first time in his career, decided that team building was in order for his tunnellers. The JV employed a bilingualfacilitator, devised some exercises, and set the workforce on a week's session. It was a success. Early on it became apparent that in tunnelling, where much communication is done by hand signals, language differences are less of a hurdle than first thought.
Both sets of men were positive, says Mr Keys, the British guys ready to learn and the French keen to share their knowledge. That is probably just as well. The first section of the tunnelling proved more difficult than expected, due to poor quality chalk that broke out in lumps when it was chain-sawed.
This ultimately extended the tunnelling period by a month. However, the team overcame this. Now the tunnelling is complete Mr Keys is keener to emphasise the achievements, rather than the hold-ups. He stresses the speed of the method; at peak 35 linear m in a five-day week 24 hours a day with a sq m face.
The membrane and inner skin have yet to be completed, although they are nearly there. The sub-base is going into the invert of the tunnel at the moment and then the mechanical and electrical works can start. Joint venture operatives will do much of the work, with specialist firms being brought in for individual areas. However, this is due to changes which the council made, explains Mr Couldrey, many of them connected to the control building where the sensors and signals from the tunnel will be marshalled and monitored.
Extra time aside, the Perforex method has proved itself. It promised to deliver low settlement at low cover and it has. At one point the tunnel passes just 4 m below the foundations of a row of cottages, which would have been demolished under the original scheme but can be sold by the council at the end of the job. There is not another UK contract suitable for the Perforex system on the horizon, but Mr Keys and his colleagues are speaking to a number of major clients in a bid to find another job.
He is confident there will be more. However, now that the British tunnellers have experience under their belts, it seems unlikely that any subsequent projects will see the same levels of entente cordiale at the workface. PEFOREX'S tunnelling method involves using a huge chainsaw to cut slots around the tunnel's circumference, filling them with shotcrete and then removing the face of the tunnel.
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